An initial value for a is guessed and the governing equation (3.37) is solved as an initial value problem. Then, a new value of a is obtained using the following relation. [6] [21] [Pg.233]

However, the Jacobian can be predicted exactly by differentiating the governing equation (3.37) with respect to alpha as [Pg.234]

The initial conditions for y2 are obtained by differentiating equations (3.40) and (3.38) with respect to a [Pg.234]

This boundary value problem is solved in Maple below [Pg.234]

Consider the nonlinear heat transfer problem solved in example 3.2.4. Obtain series solutions for this problem and plot the profiles. [Pg.288]

Consider heat transfer in a fin with variable conductivity and nonlinear heat transfer coefficient. [25] The governing equations and boundary conditions are ... [Pg.293]

The greatest error appears in the application of the overall heat transfer coefficient Ui and its use as a constant value. Ui models the overall effect of complex and nonlinear heat transfer processes. Its value for a given collector depends on the local values of T, on the sky temperature T, in view of radiation, on the mass flow rate of the working medium, and on the weather (e.g., wind) conditions. In the value of Ui, the temperature dependence of the heat transfer from the covering is strong. One can interpret the value of Ui as the sum of three coefficients heat transfer from top covering (U, from the bottom plate (Uy), and from the edges (JJ. ... [Pg.320]

In Figure 14.26, the instantaneous efficiency and the outlet temperature of a liquid-type collector (single-covering, steel finned tubes, black absorber) are illustrated as a function of liquid heat capacity flow rate [37]. The parameter is the irradiation. As the variations of I are accompanied by nonlinear heat transfer resistance variations, the curves for different I values deviate. The entry temperature of the medium is equal to the outside temperature (T j = TJ. [Pg.324]

T. Frohlich, Nonlinear heat transfer mechanisms in supercritical fluids, PhD Thesis, 1997, Munich. [Pg.54]

Erdmann, B., J. Lang, and M. Seebass, Optimization of temperature distributions for regional hyperthermia based on a nonlinear heat transfer model. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Scl, 1998, 858 36 6. [Pg.110]

Lang, J., B. Erdmann, and M. Seebass, Impact of nonlinear heat transfer on temperature control in regional hyperthermia. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 1999,46 1129-1138. [Pg.110]

Thus loops, utility paths, and stream splits offer the degrees of freedom for manipulating the network cost. The problem is one of multivariable nonlinear optimization. The constraints are only those of feasible heat transfer positive temperature difference and nonnegative heat duty for each exchanger. Furthermore, if stream splits exist, then positive bremch flow rates are additional constraints. [Pg.392]

FIG. 8-49 Heat-transfer rate in sensible-heat exchange varies nonlinearly with flow of the manipulated fluid. [Pg.747]

The combined fiuld fiow, heat transfer, mass transfer and reaction problem, described by Equations 2-7, lead to three-dimensional, nonlinear, time dependent partial differential equations. The general numerical solution of these goes beyond the memory and speed capabilities of the current generation of supercomputers. Therefore, we consider appropriate physical assumptions to reduce the computations. [Pg.358]

If a more complex mathematical model is employed to represent the evaporation process, you must shift from analytic to numerical methods. The material and enthalpy balances become complicated functions of temperature (and pressure). Usually all of the system parameters are specified except for the heat transfer areas in each effect (n unknown variables) and the vapor temperatures in each effect excluding the last one (n — 1 unknown variables). The model introduces n independent equations that serve as constraints, many of which are nonlinear, plus nonlinear relations among the temperatures, concentrations, and physical properties such as the enthalpy and the heat transfer coefficient. [Pg.434]

In the second example, that of an industrial pyrolysis reactor, simplified material and energy balances were used to analyze the performance of the process. In this example, linear and nonlinear reconciliation techniques were used. A strategy for joint parameter estimation and data reconciliation was implemented for the evaluation of the overall heat transfer coefficient. The usefulness of sequential processing of the information for identifying inconsistencies in the operation of the furnace was further demonstrated. [Pg.268]

Chemical reactors intended for use in different processes differ in size, geometry and design. Nevertheless, a number of common features allows to classify them in a systematic way [3], [4], [9]. Aspects such as, flow pattern of the reaction mixture, conditions of heat transfer in the reactor, mode of operation, variation in the process variables with time and constructional features, can be considered. This work deals with the classification according to the flow pattern of the reaction mixture, the conditions of heat transfer and the mode of operation. The main purpose is to show the utility of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) both from the point of view of control design and the study of nonlinear phenomena. [Pg.3]

H is defined as the convective heat transfer coefficient. This proportionality constant contains all the nonlinearities associated with convection /A is the area of the surfaces in contact Tsurf is the temperature of the hot surface Tamb is the ambient fluid temperature... [Pg.404]

It is difficult to solve the system of Eqs. (39)—(41) for these boundary conditions. However, certain simplifying assumptions can be made, if the Prandtl number approaches large values. In this case, the thermal boundary layer becomes very thin and, therefore, only the fluid layer near the plate contributes significantly to the heat transfer resistance. The velocity components in Eq. (41) can then be approximated by the first term of their Taylor series expansions in terms of y. In addition, because the nonlinear inertial terms are negligible near the wall, one can further assume that the combined forced and free convection velocity is approximately equal to the sum of the velocities that would exist when these effects act independently. Therefore, for assisting flows at large Prandtl numbers (theoretically for Pr -> oo), Eq. (41) can be rewritten in the form ... [Pg.26]

Heat exchanger network resilience analysis can become nonlinear and nonconvex in the cases of phase change and temperature-dependent heat capacities, varying stream split fractions, or uncertain flow rates or heat transfer coefficients. This section presents resilience tests developed by Saboo et al. (1987a,b) for (1) minimum unit HENs with piecewise constant heat capacities (but no stream splits or flow rate uncertainties), (2) minimum unit HENs with stream splits (but constant heat capacities and no flow rate uncertainties), and (3) minimum unit HENs with flow rate and temperature uncertainties (but constant heat capacities and no stream splits). [Pg.33]

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