FIGURE 1 3 Boundary surfaces of the 2p orbitals The wave function changes sign at the nucleus The two halves of each orbital are indicated by different colors The yz plane is a nodal surface for the Ip orbital The probability of finding a electron in the yz plane is zero Anal ogously the xz plane is a nodal surface for the 2py orbital and the xy plane is a nodal surface for the 2pz orbital You may examine different presentations of a 2p orbital on Learning By Modeling... [Pg.9]

CT and the antibondmg orbital ct ( sigma star ) The bonding orbital is characterized by a region of high electron probability between the two atoms while the antibondmg orbital has a nodal surface between them... [Pg.62]

FIGURE 114 The TT molecular orbitals of benzene arranged in order of increasing energy and showing nodal surfaces The six tt electrons of benzene occupy the three lowest energy or bitals all of which are bonding... [Pg.431]

Nodal surface (Section 1 1) A plane drawn through an orbital where the algebraic sign of a wave function changes The probability of finding an electron at a node is zero... [Pg.1289]

For all orbitals except s there are regions in space where 0, ) = 0 because either Yimt = 0 or = 0. In these regions the electron density is zero and we call them nodal surfaces or, simply, nodes. For example, the 2p orbital has a nodal plane, while each of the 3d orbitals has two nodal planes. In general, there are I such angular nodes where = 0. The 2s orbital has one spherical nodal plane, or radial node, as Figure 1.7 shows. In general, there are (n — 1) radial nodes for an ns orbital (or n if we count the one at infinity). [Pg.17]

Front-side approach is disfavored both because the density of the a orbital is less in the region between the carbon and the leaving group and because front-side approach would involve both a bonding and an antibonding interaction with the tr orbital since it has a nodal surface between the atoms. [Pg.268]

Mixed labeling involving both x and a orbitals occurs in certain molecules the 5BU molecular orbitals of ra is-2-butene (III.78) and transoid 1,3-butadiene (III.65) are labeled ch3> ( cc) and 7rcn2> ( cc) because one lobe of the x orbital overlaps well with the adjacent CC bond-orbital to form a delocalized combination. In cisoid acrolein, orbitals 9A and 10A are labeled TCH2y

A MO which has a nodal surface crossing a bond is antibonding (or vice versa, bonding) for that bond when the MO is filled, the bond is weakened (strengthened), when it is emptied, by ionization or excitation or reaction, the bond is strengthened (weakened). [Pg.7]

S02. Figure 9 shows how the SACs of 02 can be coupled to the MOs of H2S to give the MOs of H2S02, for each symmetry block, but the reader may work out the equivalent case, in which the MOs of S02 are combined with the SACs of H2. The final result must be qualitatively the same the MO shapes are given in Figure 10. Within the AS block, it is easy to recognize that the number of nodal surfaces increases from 1 to 4 as the energy rises. [Pg.11]

The Relation between the Shell Model and Layers of Spherons.—In the customary nomenclature for nucleon orbitals the principal quantum number n is taken to be nr + 1, where nr> the radial quantum number, is the number of nodes in the radial wave function. (For electrons n is taken to be nT + l + 1.) The nucleon distribution function for n = 1 corresponds to a single shell (for Is a ball) about the origin. For n = 2 the wave function has a small negative value inside the nodal surface, that is, in the region where the wave function for n = 1 and the same value of l is large, and a large value in the region just beyond this surface. [Pg.808]

The wave function of an electron corresponds to the expression used to describe the amplitude of a vibrating chord as a function of the position x. The opposite direction of the motion of the chord on the two sides of a vibrational node is expressed by opposite signs of the wave function. Similarly, the wave function of an electron has opposite signs on the two sides of a nodal surface. The wave function is a function of the site x, y, z, referred to a coordinate system that has its origin in the center of the atomic nucleus. [Pg.85]

It can be shown, from wave-mechanical calculations, that the Is orbital (quantum numbers n = 1, Z = 0, m = 0, corresponding to the classical K shell) is spherically symmetrical about the nucleus of the atom, and that the 2s orbital (quantum numbers n = 2, Z = 0, m = 0) is similarly spherically symmetrical, but at a greater distance from the nucleus there is a region between the two latter orbitals where the probability of finding an electron approaches zero (a spherical nodal surface). [Pg.2]

Consider the sum K, which collects aU the relevant exchange terms between the core electrons found in and the valence electrons found in t. This sum can vanish that is = 0 is possible. [The function li(l)2i(l)li(2)2i(2), for example, can be positive or negative depending on whether and r2 ate on the same side or on opposite sides of the nodal surface. The final sign of this contribution thus depends on the locations of the boundary and nodal surfaces.]... [Pg.20]

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