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** Empirical mean-field potentials **

** Excluded volume forces mean-field potential **

** Maier-Saupe mean-field potential **

The magnitude and shape of such a mean-field potential is shown below [21] in figure B3.1.4 for the two 1 s electrons of a beryllium atom. The Be nucleus is at the origin, and one electron is held fixed 0.13 A from the nucleus, the maximum of the Is orbital s radial probability density. The Coulomb potential experienced by the second electron is then a function of the second electron s position along the v-axis (coimecting the Be nucleus and the first electron) and its distance perpendicular to the v-axis. For simplicity, this second electron... [Pg.2159]

On the ordinate, two quantities are plotted (i) the mean-field potential between the second electron and the other 1 s electron computed, via the self-consistent field (SCF) process (described later), as the interaction of... [Pg.2160]

As a fiinction of the inter-electron distance, the fluctuation potential decays to zero more rapidly than does the mean-field potential. Flowever, the magnitude of Fis quite large and remains so over an appreciable range of inter-electron distances. The corrections to the mean-field picture are therefore quite large when measured in... [Pg.2160]

The mean-field potential and the need to improve it to aohieve reasonably aeourate solutions to the true eleotronio Selirodinger equation introduoe three oonstniots that oharaoterize essentially all ab initio quantum ohemioal methods orbitals, configurations and electron correlation. [Pg.2161]

The mean-field potentials that have proven most useful are all one-electron additive (r) = 2. (Tj). [Pg.2162]

The one-electron additivity of the mean-field Hamiltonian gives rise to the concept of spin orbitals for any additive bi fact, there is no single mean-field potential different scientists have put forth different suggestions for over the years. Each gives rise to spin orbitals and configurations that are specific to the particular However, if the difference between any particular mean-field model and the fiill electronic... [Pg.2162]

Hamiltonian is Hilly treated, corrections to all mean-field results should converge to the same set of exact states. In practice, one is never able to treat all corrections to any mean-field model. Thus, it is important to seek particular mean-field potentials for which the corrections are as small and straightforward to treat as possible. [Pg.2163]

In the most connnonly employed mean-field models [25] of electronic structure theory, the configuration specified for study plays a central role in defining the mean-field potential. For example, the mean-field... [Pg.2163]

The above mean-field potential is used to find the 2p orbital of the carbon atom, which is then used to define the mean-field potential experienced by, for example, an electron in the 2s orbital ... [Pg.2163]

Notice that the orbitals occupied in the configuration under study appear in the mean-field potential. However, it is that, tln-ough the one-electron Scln-ddinger equation, detennines the orbitals. For these reasons, the solution of these... [Pg.2163]

The SCF mean-field potential takes care of most of the interactions among the A electrons. However, for all... [Pg.2163]

The magnitude and "shape" of sueh a mean-field potential is shown below for the Beryllium atom. In this figure, the nueleus is at the origin, and one eleetron is plaeed at a distanee from the nueleus equal to the maximum of the Is orbital s radial probability density (near 0.13 A). The radial eoordinate of the seeond is plotted as the abseissa this seeond eleetron is arbitrarily eonstrained to lie on the line eonneeting the nueleus and the first eleetron (along this direetion, the inter-eleetronie interaetions are largest). On the ordinate, there are two quantities plotted (i) the Self-Consistent Field (SCF) mean-field... [Pg.231]

The single Slater determinant wavefunction (properly spin and symmetry adapted) is the starting point of the most common mean field potential. It is also the origin of the molecular orbital concept. [Pg.457]

There are several ways to model the substrate. The simplest would be to consider the substrate as a structureless attractive wall. However, since we want the polymer molecules to be parallel to each other on the substrate, we impose a directional force. In 2D crystallization, we took the substrate structure into account by use of the continuous substrate potential t/2, a sort of mean field potential that restricts the molecular motion on the substrate [20] ... [Pg.41]

It is of interest to mention that, once particular choices are made concerning how the mean-field interactions are incorporated into the model, the corresponding partition function and thermodynamics follow in a straightforward manner. In particular, there exists a method based upon a variational argument, to formulate the best possible corresponding (mean-field) potential fields. We will not go into these details here, but refer to the variational method, as... [Pg.52]

Here, the mean field potential includes the phenomenological isoscalar part Uq x) along with the isovector U (x) and the Coulomb Uc(x) parts calculated consistently in the Hartree approximation Uo(r) and Uso(x) = Uso r)a l are the central and spin-orbit parts of the isoscalar mean field, respectively, and, SPot(r) is the potential part of the symmetry energy. [Pg.105]

That is, the classical DoF propagate according to a mean-field potential, the value of which is weighted by the instantaneous populations of the different quantum states. A MFT calculation thus consists of the self-consistent solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation (28) for the quantum DoF and Newton s equation (32) for the classical DoF. To represent the initial state (15) of the molecular system, the electronic DoF dk Q) as well as the nuclear DoF xj Q) and Pj 0) are sampled from a quasi-classical phase-space distribution [23, 24, 26]. [Pg.269]

The terms etc. represent the one-body mean-field potential, which approximates the two-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian, as is the practice in SCF schemes. In the DFB equations this interaction includes the Breit term (3) in addition to the electron... [Pg.163]

Equation (69) or (71) does not contain the self-consistent mean field potential Vscf(a), indicating that the thermodynamic force does not contribute to the steady-state stress or viscosity and thus explaining why r 0 for aqueous xanthan solutions shown in Fig. 19 is independent of Cs. However, this force may play a role in the stress in a non-steady-state flow through Vscf (a), as can be seen from Eqs, (61) and (62). [Pg.140]

We assume the system under consideration to be a single domain. Then the orientational state of the system can be specified by the order parameter tensor S defined by Eq. (63), The time evolution of S is governed by the kinetic equation, Eq. (64), along with Eqs. (62) and (65). This kinetic equation tells us that the orientational state in the rodlike polymer system in an external flow field is determined by the term F related to the mean-field potential Vscf and by the term G arising from the external flow field. These two terms control the orientation state in a complex manner as explained below. [Pg.149]

Larson s results [154] are divided into the three shear rate regimes - tumbling, wagging, and steady-state - as explained below. He chose the strength of mean-field potential 2L2dc in Eq. (41) to be 10.67, which corresponds to the concentration cA of the nematic phase coexisting with the isotropic phase (in the second virial approximation), and expressed the shear rate in terms of T defined by... [Pg.150]

Among other approaches, a theory for intermolecular interactions in dilute block copolymer solutions was presented by Kimura and Kurata (1981). They considered the association of diblock and triblock copolymers in solvents of varying quality. The second and third virial coefficients were determined using a mean field potential based on the segmental distribution function for a polymer chain in solution. A model for micellization of block copolymers in solution, based on the thermodynamics of associating multicomponent mixtures, was presented by Gao and Eisenberg (1993). The polydispersity of the block copolymer and its influence on micellization was a particular focus of this work. For block copolymers below the cmc, a collapsed spherical conformation was assumed. Interactions of the collapsed spheres were then described by the Hamaker equation, with an interaction energy proportional to the radius of the spheres. [Pg.171]

The electrostatic part, Wg(ft), can be evaluated with the reaction field model. The short-range term, i/r(Tl), could in principle be derived from the pair interactions between molecules [21-23], This kind of approach, which can be very cumbersome, may be necessary in some cases, e.g. for a thorough analysis of the thermodynamic properties of liquid crystals. However, a lower level of detail can be sufficient to predict orientational order parameters. Very effective approaches have been developed, in the sense that they are capable of providing a good account of the anisotropy of short-range intermolecular interactions, at low computational cost [6,22], These are phenomenological models, essentially in the spirit of the popular Maier-Saupe theory [24], wherein the mean-field potential is parameterized in terms of the anisometry of the molecular surface. They rely on the physical insight that the anisotropy of steric and dispersion interactions reflects the molecular shape. [Pg.273]

The implications of individual neuron dynamics on neuronal network synchronization is evident. In Fig. 7.9 (from Schneider et al., unpublished data) this is demonstrated with network simulations (10 x 10 neurons) of nearest neighbor gap-junction coupling. It is illustrated in quite a simple form which, in a similar way, can also be experimentally used with the local mean field potential (LFP). In the simulations LFP simply is the mean potential value of all neurons. In the nonsynchronized state LFP shows tiny, random fluctuations. In the completely in-phase synchronized states the spikes should peak out to their full height... [Pg.219]

electrochemical potential and the double layer repulsion using a lattice model, applicable to hydrated ions of different sizes, that accounts for the correlation between the probabilities of occupancy of adjacent sites. As the other lattice models,4-7 this model accounts only for the steric, excluded volume effects due to ionic hydration. In feet, short-ranged electrostatic interactions between the ions and the dipoles of the water molecules, as well as the van der Waals interactions between the ions and the water molecules, are responsible for the formation of the hydrated ions. The long-ranged interactions between charges are taken into account through an electrostatic (mean field) potential. The correlation between ions is expected to be negligible for sufficiently low ionic concentrations. [Pg.332]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.7 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.96 , Pg.99 ]

** Empirical mean-field potentials **

** Excluded volume forces mean-field potential **

** Maier-Saupe mean-field potential **

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