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** Boundary layers local coordinates **

** Local Cartesian coordinate system **

** Local coordination polyhedra octahedron **

In local coordinates, the constraint is r s 1, so equations (12) simplify directly into... [Pg.289]

The constrained equations of motion in cartesian eoordinates can be solved by the SHAKE or (the essentially equivalent) RATTLE method (see [8]) which requires the solution of a non-linear system of equations in the Lagrange multiplier funetion A. The equivalent formulation in local coordinates ean still be integrated by using the explicit Verlet method. [Pg.289]

Note that, in loeal eoordinates. Step 2 is equivalent to integrating the equations (13). Thus, Step 2 can either be performed in loeal or in eartesian coordinates. We consider two different implicit methods for this purpose, namely, the midpoint method and the energy conserving method (6) which, in this example, coineides with the method (7) (because the V term appearing in (6) and (7) for q = qi — q2 is quadratie here). These methods are applied to the formulation in cartesian and in local coordinates and the properties of the resulting propagation maps are discussed next. [Pg.289]

To obtain the unconditional stability of the midpoint method in local coordinates, one would have to consider the decoupling transformation from cartesian to local coordinates for the discrete variables etc. But this transformation, which for the continuous variables is not constant, necessarily is in error which depends on k, not e. The stability properties of the discrete dynamical systems obtained by the midpoint discretization in the different sets of coordinatc.s may therefore be significantly different when it 3> e [3]. [Pg.291]

Unfortunately, discretization methods with large step sizes applied to such problems tend to miss this additional force term [3]. Furthermore, even if the implicit midpoint method is applied to a formulation in local coordinates, similar problems occur [3]. Since the midpoint scheme and its variants (6) and (7) are basically identical in local coordinates, the same problem can be expected for the energy conserving method (6). To demonstrate this, let us consider the following modified model problem [13] ... [Pg.293]

Figure 2.13 Local coordinate system in rectangular elements... |

Isoparametric transformation functions between a global coordinate system and local coordinates are, in general, written as... [Pg.35]

In conjunction with the use of isoparametric elements it is necessary to express the derivatives of nodal functions in terms of local coordinates. This is a straightforward procedure for elements with C continuity and can be described as follows Using the chain rule for differentiation of functions of multiple variables, the derivative of a function in terms of local variables ij) can be expressed as... [Pg.37]

Furthermore, in a global syslena limits of definite integrals in the coefficient matrix will be different for each element. This difficulty is readily resolved using a local coordinate system (shown as x) to define the elemental shape functions as... [Pg.47]

The unknowns in this equation are the local coordinates of the foot (i.e. and 7]). After insertion of the global coordinates of the foot found at step 6 in the left-hand side, and the global coordinates of the nodal points in a given element in the right-hand side of this equation, it is solved using the Newton-Raphson method. If the foot is actually inside the selected element then for a quadrilateral element its local coordinates must be between -1 and +1 (a suitable criteria should be used in other types of elements). If the search is not successful then another element is selected and the procedure is repeated. [Pg.107]

In Equation (5,14), (77j ) is found by interpolating existing nodal values at the old time step and then transforming the found value to the convccted coordinate system. Calculation of the componenrs of 7 " and (/7y ) depends on the evaluation of first-order derivahves of the transformed coordinates (e.g, as seen in Equation (5.9). This gives the measure of deformation experienced by the fluid between time steps of n and + 1. Using the I line-independent local coordinates of a fluid particle (, ri) we have... [Pg.154]

Finite element library subroutines containing shape functions and their derivatives in terms of local coordinates. [Pg.196]

SHAPE. Gives the shape functions in terms of local coordinates for bi-linear or bi-quadratic quadrilateral elements. [Pg.211]

Proof. By utilizing the local coordinate systems (1.135), the assertion of Lemma 1.13 reduces to the case... [Pg.52]

The known uranium(VI) carbonate soHds have empirical formulas, 1102(003), M2U02(C03)2, and M4U02(C03)3. The soHd of composition 1102(003) is a well-known mineral, mtherfordine, and its stmcture has been determined from crystals of both the natural mineral and synthetic samples. Rutherfordine is a layered soHd in which the local coordination environment of the uranyl ion consists of a hexagonal bipyramidal arrangement of oxygen atoms with the uranyl units perpendicular to the orthorhombic plane. Each uranium atom forms six equatorial bonds with the oxygen atoms of four carbonate ligands, two in a bidentate manner and two in a monodentate manner. [Pg.327]

Fluorides. Uranium fluorides play an important role in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in the production of uranium metal. The dark purple UF [13775-06-9] has been prepared by two different methods neither of which neither have been improved. The first involves a direct reaction of UF [10049-14-6] and uranium metal under elevated temperatures, while the second consists of the reduction of UF [10049-14-6] by UH [13598-56-6]. The local coordination environment of uranium in the trifluoride is pentacapped trigonal prismatic with an 11-coordinate uranium atom. The trifluoride is... [Pg.331]

First of all, one needs to choose the local coordinate frame of a molecule and position it in space. Figure 2a shows the global coordinate frame xyz and the local frame x y z bound with the molecule. The origin of the local frame coincides with the first atom. Its three Cartesian coordinates are included in the whole set and are varied directly by integrators and minimizers, like any other independent variable. The angular orientation of the local frame is determined by a quaternion. The principles of application of quaternions in mechanics are beyond this book they are explained in detail in well-known standard texts... [Pg.119]

When we look in the local segment coordinate system, the symmetry of the equation seen in the global coordinate system is lost, and we will see azimuthal variations. We wish to express the equation for the segment surface in its local coordinate system... [Pg.68]

Day to day management of the schemes was ieft with me, and comprised at ieast haif of my workioad over 4 years, it has since been handed on to other peopie. Roots Wings oniy worked because of the dedication of Local Coordinators who built up and maintained relationships with a school, recruited mentors and supported the pairs. [Pg.59]

In the same way as described above, we can formulate the multidimensional theory without relying on the complex-valued Lagrange manifold that constitutes one of the main obstacles of the conventional multidimensional WKB theory [62,63,77,78]. Another crucial point is that the theory should not depend on any local coordinates, which gives a cumbersome problem in practical applications. Below, a general formulation is described, which is free from these difficuluties and applicable to vertually any multidimensional systems [30]. [Pg.117]

Now, the general formulation of the problem is finished and ready to be applied to real systems without relying on any local coordinates. The next problems to be solved for practical applications are (1) how to find the instanton trajectory qo( t) efficiently in multidimensional space and (2) how to incorporate high level of accurate ab initio quantum chemical calculations that are very time consuming. These problems are discussed in the following Section III. A. 2. [Pg.119]

** Boundary layers local coordinates **

** Local Cartesian coordinate system **

** Local coordination polyhedra octahedron **

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