Since it is not possible to generate antisynnnetric combinations of products if the same spin orbital appears twice in each tenn, it follows that states which assign the same set of four quantum numbers twice cannot possibly satisfy the requirement P.j i = -ij/, so this statement of the exclusion principle is consistent with the more general symmetry requirement. An even more general statement of the exclusion principle, which can be regarded as an additional postulate of quantum mechanics, is... [Pg.30]

The wavevector is a good quantum number e.g., the orbitals of the Kohn-Sham equations [21] can be rigorously labelled by k and spin. In tln-ee dimensions, four quantum numbers are required to characterize an eigenstate. In spherically syimnetric atoms, the numbers correspond to n, /, m., s, the principal, angular momentum, azimuthal and spin quantum numbers, respectively. Bloch s theorem states that the equivalent... [Pg.101]

These are three of the four quantum numbers familiar from general chemistry. The spin quantum number s arises when relativity is included in the problem, introducing a fourth dimension. [Pg.171]

Pauli exclusion principle (Section 1 1) No two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers An equivalent expression is that only two electrons can occupy the same orbital and then only when they have opposite spins PCC (Section 15 10) Abbreviation for pyndimum chlorochro mate C5H5NH" ClCr03 When used in an anhydrous medium PCC oxidizes pnmary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones... [Pg.1290]

Spin quantum number (Section 1.1) One of the four quantum numbers that describe an electron. An electron may have either of two different spin quantum numbers, + or... [Pg.1294]

The arrangement of electrons in an atom is described by means of four quantum numbers which determine the spatial distribution, energy, and other properties, see Appendix 1 (p. 1285). The principal quantum number n defines the general energy level or shell to which the electron belongs. Electrons with n = 1.2, 3, 4., are sometimes referred to as K, L, M, N,. .., electrons. The orbital quantum number / defines both the shape of the electron charge distribution and its orbital angular... [Pg.22]

The fourth quantum number is called the spin angular momentum quantum number for historical reasons. In relativistic (four-dimensional) quantum mechanics this quantum number is associated with the property of symmetry of the wave function and it can take on one of two values designated as -t-i and — j, or simply a and All electrons in atoms can be described by means of these four quantum numbers and, as first enumerated by W. Pauli in his Exclusion Principle (1926), each electron in an atom must have a unique set of the four quantum numbers. [Pg.22]

For reasons we will discuss later, a fourth quantum number is required to completely describe a specific electron in a multielectron atom. The fourth quantum number is given the symbol ms. Each electron in an atom has a set of four quantum numbers n, l, mi, and ms. We will now discuss the quantum numbers of electrons as they are used in atoms beyond hydrogen. [Pg.140]

The four quantum numbers that characterize an electron in an atom have now been considered. There is an important rule, called the Pauli exclusion principle, that relates to these numbers. It requires that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quan-... [Pg.141]

The Pauli exclusion principle has an implication that is not obvious at first glance. It requires that only two electrons can fit into an orbital, since there are only two possible values of m,. Moreover, if two electrons occupy the same orbital, they must have opposed spins. Otherwise they would have the same set of four quantum numbers. [Pg.142]

Strategy Use the selection rules for the four quantum numbers to find the sets that could not occur. For the valid sets, identify the principal level and sublevel... [Pg.142]

Exdusion principle The rule stating that no two electrons can have the identical set of four quantum numbers, 141-142 Exhaustion, physical, 385 Exothermic reaction, 203 Exothermic Describes a process in which heat is evolved by a system AH is negative for an exothermic reaction, 208-210,212-213... [Pg.687]

These days students are presented with the four quantum number description of electrons in many-electron atoms as though these quantum numbers somehow drop out of quantum mechanics in a seamless manner. In fact, they do not and furthermore they emerged, one at a time, beginning with Bohr s use of just one quantum number and culminating with Pauli s introduction of the fourth quantum number and his associated Exclusion Principle. [Pg.4]

Paper four first appeared in the Journal of Chemical Education and aimed to highlight one of the important ways in which the periodic table is not fully explained by quantum mechanics. The orbital model and the four quantum number description of electrons, as described earlier, is generally taken as the explanation of the periodic table but there is an important and often neglected limitation in this explanation. This is the fact that the possible combinations of four quantum numbers, which are strictly deduced from the theory, explain the closing of electron shells but not the closing of the periods. That is to say the deductive explanation only shows why successive electron shells can contain 2, 8, 18 and 32 electrons respectively. [Pg.5]

The notion of electrons in orbitals consists essentially of ascribing four distinct quantum numbers to each electron in a many-electron atom. It can be shown that this notion is strictly inconsistent with quantum mechanics (7). Definite quantum numbers for individual electrons do not have any meaning in the framework of quantum mechanics. The erroneous view stems from the original formulation of the Pauli principle in 1925, which stated that no two electrons could share the same four quantum numbers (8), This version of the principle was superseded by a new formulation that avoids any reference to individual quantum numbers for separate electrons. The new version due to the independent work of Heisenberg and Dirac in 1926 states that the wave function of a many-electron atom must be antisymmetrical with respect to the interchange of any two particles (9,10). [Pg.13]

This is often stated as, no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers (Table 3). [Pg.24]

Pauli justified the identification of four quantum numbers with each electron with the following apparently clever argument. He supposed that if a strong magnetic field is applied, the electrons are decoupled and so do not interact, and can be said to be in individual stationary states. Of course, the periodic table arrangement must also apply in the absence of a magnetic field. [Pg.24]

Of course, nowadays, as every student of chemistry and physics knows, electron orbits have been replaced by orbitals that are supposed to be smeared out in space. But this view misses the point somewhat and is not the whole lesson from quantum mechanics. The more radical lesson is that even these probability-based orbitals simply do not exist. The notion of assigning four quantum numbers to each electron is just an approximation, albeit a powerful one. [Pg.40]

The state of an electron in a hydrogen atom is defined by the four quantum numbers n, l, and ms as the value ofn increases, the size of the atom increases. [Pg.155]

LO Name and explain the relation of each of the four quantum numbers to the properties and relative energies of atomic orbitals (Sections 1.8—1.1 1). [Pg.174]

Of the following sets of four quantum numbers [n, l, ntf, ms), identify the ones that are forbidden for an electron in an atom and explain why they are invalid ... [Pg.177]

A complete description of an atomic electron requires a set of four quantum numbers, , /, tt/, and, which must meet all the restrictions summarized in Table 7. Any set of quantum numbers that does not obey these restrictions does not correspond to an orbital and cannot describe an electron. [Pg.473]

In applying the aufbau principle, remember that a full description of an electron requires four quantum numbers ... [Pg.514]

Quantum numbers The four quantum numbers—principal, angular momentum, magnetic, and spin—arise from solutions to the wave equation and govern the electron configuration of atoms. [Pg.123]

An electron orbiting in an atom is a circular electric current that is surrounded by a magnetic field. This also can adopt only certain orientations in an external magnetic field according to quantum mechanics. The state of an electron in an atom is characterized by four quantum numbers ... [Pg.232]

The properties of the Slater determinant demonstrate immediately the Pauli exclusion principle, as usually taught. It reads No two electrons can have all four quantum numbers equal, that is to say that they cannot occupy the same quantum state. It is the direct result of the more general argument that the wavefunction must be antisymmetric under the permutation of any pair of (identical and indistinguishable) electrons. [Pg.138]

For a triplet to result, two electrons must have different orbitals and the same spin (the Pauli principle forbids having two unpaired electrons in the same orbital since all four quantum numbers would be the same). We saw in Chapter 1 that upon light absorption an electron is promoted from one orbital to a higher orbital. If we were to excite directly from the ground state singlet to the triplet state we would have to simultaneously change orbitals and electronic spins. Since this process is relatively improbable, direct absorption to the triplet state is seldom observed (later in this chapter,... [Pg.410]

No two electrons can be described by the same four quantum numbers. [Pg.282]

Each vertical set of four quantum numbers represents one electron. [Pg.254]

The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers. Along with the order of increasing energy, we can use this principle to deduce the order of filling of electron shells in atoms. [Pg.255]

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