Pogrebnya S K, Echave J and Clary D C 1997 Quantum theory of four-atom reactions using arrangement channel hyperspherical coordinates Formulation and application to OH + Hg < HgO + H J. Chem. Phys. [Pg.2324]

Clary D C 1994 Four-atom reaction dynamics J. Phys. Chem. 98 10 678... [Pg.2328]

The preferable theoretical tools for the description of dynamical processes in systems of a few atoms are certainly quantum mechanical calculations. There is a large arsenal of powerful, well established methods for quantum mechanical computations of processes such as photoexcitation, photodissociation, inelastic scattering and reactive collisions for systems having, in the present state-of-the-art, up to three or four atoms, typically. " Both time-dependent and time-independent numerically exact algorithms are available for many of the processes, so in cases where potential surfaces of good accuracy are available, excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is generally obtained. In addition to the full quantum-mechanical methods, sophisticated semiclassical approximations have been developed that for many cases are essentially of near-quantitative accuracy and certainly at a level sufficient for the interpretation of most experiments.These methods also are com-... [Pg.365]

In the case of 1,3-butadiene, RAMSES combines the two double bonds to form a single, delocalized r-electron system containing four electrons over all four atoms (Figure 2-50a). The same concept is applied to benzene. As shown in Figure 2-50b, the three double bonds of the Kekule representation form one electron system with six atoms and six electrons. [Pg.65]

To ensure that the arrangement of four atoms in a trigonal planar environment (e.g., a sp -hybridized carbon atom) remains essentially planar, a quadratic term like V(0) = (fe/2) is used to achieve the desired geometry. By calculating the angle 9 between a bond from the central atom and the plane defined by the central... [Pg.343]

SCF approximation. The indices //, v, A, and o denote four atomic orbital centers, so that the number of such orbitals that needs to be calculated increases proportionally scales with ) N, where N is the number of AOs, This was an intractable task in 1965, so Pople, Santry, and Segal introduced the approximation that only integrals in which = v and J. = o (i.e., li)) would be considered and that, further-... [Pg.382]

The two values, e and s, calculated for all the combinations of four atoms (each one sampled from a different ligand of a chiral center) are then combined to generate a conformation-independent ckirality code, fcjcC rising Eq. (28). [Pg.422]

The conformation-dependent chirality code constitutes a more general description of molecular chirality, which is formally comparable with the CICC [43], The main difference is that chiral carbon atoms arc now not explicitly considered, and combinations of any four atoms are now used, independently of the existence or nonexistence of chiial centers, and of their belonging or not belonging to ligands of chiral centers. [Pg.423]

Each combination of four atoms (A, B. C. and D) is characterized by two parameters, e and e.. As for the CICC, is a parameter that depends on atomic properties and on distances, and is calculated by Eq. (27), with r, again being the sum of bond lengths between atoms on the path with the minimum number of bond counts. However c is now a geometric parameter (dependent on the conformation)... [Pg.423]

For each combination of atoms i.j, k, and I, c is defined by Eq. (29), where X , y,. and Zj are the coordinates of atom j in Cartesian space defined in such a way that atom i is at position (0, 0, 0), atomj lies on the positive side of the x-axis, and atom k lies on the xy-plaiic and has a positive y-coordinate. On the right-hand side of Eq. (29), the numerator represents the volume of a rectangular prism with edges % , y ., and Zi, while the denominator is proportional to the surface of the same solid. If X . y ., or 2 has a very small absolute value, the set of four atoms is deviating only slightly from an achiral situation. This is reflected in c, which would then take a small absolute value the value of c is conformation-dependent because it is a function of the 3D atomic coordinates. [Pg.424]

Tor all restraints, HyperChem uses named selections that contain two, three, or four atoms each. You use Name Selection on the Selectmenn to assign nam es to groups of selected atom s. Th en you can apply named selections as restraints for a calculation in the Restraint Forces dialog box from Restraints on the Setup menu. [Pg.81]

A restrain t (not to be confused with a Model Builder constraint) is a nser-specified one-atom tether, two-atom stretch, three-atom bend, or four-atom torsional interaction to add to the list ol molec-11 lar mechanics m teraction s computed for a molecule. These added iiueraciious are treated no differently IVoin any other stretch, bend, or torsion, except that they employ a quadratic functional form. They replace no in teraction, on ly add to the computed in teraction s. [Pg.203]

If we substitute the atomic orbital expansion, we obtain a series of two-electron integrals, each of which involves four atomic orbitals ... [Pg.65]

Various other ways to incorporate the out-of-plane bending contribution are possible. For e3

Before considering other concepts and group-theoretical machinery, it should once again be stressed that these same tools can be used in symmetry analysis of the translational, vibrational and rotational motions of a molecule. The twelve motions of NH3 (three translations, three rotations, six vibrations) can be described in terms of combinations of displacements of each of the four atoms in each of three (x,y,z) directions. Hence, unit vectors placed on each atom directed in the x, y, and z directions form a basis for action by the operations S of the point group. In the case of NH3, the characters of the resultant 12x12 representation matrices form a reducible representation... [Pg.594]

From the information on the right side of the C3v eharaeter table, translations of all four atoms in the z, x and y direetions transform as Ai(z) and E(x,y), respeetively, whereas rotations about the z(Rz), x(Rx), and y(Ry) axes transform as A2 and E. Henee, of the twelve motions, three translations have A and E symmetry and three rotations have A2 and E symmetry. This leaves six vibrations, of whieh two have A symmetry, none have A2 symmetry, and two (pairs) have E symmetry. We eould obtain symmetry-adapted vibrational and rotational bases by allowing symmetry projeetion operators of the irredueible representation symmetries to operate on various elementary eartesian (x,y,z) atomie displaeement veetors. Both Cotton and Wilson, Deeius and Cross show in detail how this is aeeomplished. [Pg.595]

Mix four atomic orbitals to produce four hybrid orbitals... [Pg.65]

Ethylene is planar with bond angles close to 120° (Figure 2 15) therefore some hybridization state other than sp is required The hybridization scheme is determined by the number of atoms to which carbon is directly attached In sp hybridization four atoms are attached to carbon by ct bonds and so four equivalent sp hybrid orbitals are required In ethylene three atoms are attached to each carbon so three equivalent hybrid orbitals... [Pg.89]

Although both stereoisomers yield 4 tert butylcyclohexene as the only alkene they do so at quite different rates The cis isomer reacts over 500 times faster than the trans The difference in reaction rate results from different degrees of rr bond develop ment in the E2 transition state Since rr overlap of p orbitals requires their axes to be parallel rr bond formation is best achieved when the four atoms of the H—C—C—X unit he in the same plane at the transition state The two conformations that permit this are termed syn coplanar and anti coplanar... [Pg.216]

Each carbon in propane is bonded to four atoms and is sp hybridized The C—C bonds are a bonds involving overlap of a half filled sp hybrid orbital of one carbon with a half filled sp hybrid orbital of the other The C—H bonds are a bonds involving overlap of a half filled sp hybrid onbital of carbon with a half filled hydrogen li orbital... [Pg.1202]

One way to build a model is to start with one atom and then add atoms one at a time as needed For example propanal CH3CH2CH=0 can be assembled from four atoms... [Pg.1258]

Three types of geometry measurements can be made using SpartanBuild distances between pairs of atoms angles involving any three atoms and dihedral angles mvolv mg any four atoms These are accessible from the Geometry menu and from the tool bar Try these operations now... [Pg.1260]

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