The intrinsic rate provides the surface reaction velocity controlled by the kinetic control regime, i.e.. [Pg.429]

Since the reaction is irreversible and first-order with respect to A, the typical units for k and are indicated in parentheses [Pg.429]

The observed rate is described by the diffusion rate within the pore. Equation 18.3, Then, [Pg.429]

Then substituting Equations 18.22 and 18.19 into Equation 18.18, we obtain [Pg.430]

Vp is the volume of the pellet. Thus the effectiveness factor is given by... [Pg.121]

The differential material balances contain a large number of physical parameters describing the structure of the porous medium, the physical properties of the gaseous mixture diffusing through it, the kinetics of the chemical reaction and the composition and pressure of the reactant mixture outside the pellet. In such circumstances it Is always valuable to assemble the physical parameters into a smaller number of Independent dimensionless groups, and this Is best done by writing the balance equations themselves in dimensionless form. The relevant equations are (11.20), (11.21), (11.22), (11.23), (11.16) and the expression (11.27) for the effectiveness factor. [Pg.122]

Finally we must consider the effectiveness factor. Introducing the dimensionless variables Into equation (11.27), it reduces to... [Pg.124]

The set of parameters given in Table 11.1 is by no means unique, since any independent set of combinations of the given parameters will serve equally well. The particular set adopted will depend primarily on the purpose for which they are to be used. Thus, if we are interested in the dependence of the effectiveness factor on one particular physical variable, it is obviously convenient to choose the dimensionless parameters in such a way that all but one are independent of this variable. A plot of the effectiveness factor against one dimensionless parameter will then summarize the desired information. [Pg.126]

exact values from the complete dusty gas model. The calculations are performed for a first order reaction of the form A lOB in a spherical pellet. The stoichiometric coefficient 10 for the product is unrealistically large, but is chosen to emphasize any differences between the different approaches. [Pg.137]

At the limit of Knudsen diffusion control it is not reasonable to expect that any of the proposed approximation methods will perform well since, as we know, percentage variations in pressure are quite large. Nevertheless it is interesting to examine their results, which are shown in Figure 11 4 At this limit it is easy to check algebraically that equations (11.54) and (11.55) become the same, while (11.60) differs from the other two. Correspondingly the values of the effectiveness factor calculated using the approximation of Kehoe and Aris coincide with the results of Apecetche et al., and with the exact solution, ile Hite and Jackson s effectiveness factors differ substantially. [Pg.138]

Reactions in porous catalyst pellets are Invariably accompanied by thermal effects associated with the heat of reaction. Particularly In the case of exothermic reactions these may have a marked influence on the solutions, and hence on the effectiveness factor, leading to effectiveness factors greater than unity and, In certain circumstances, multiple steady state solutions with given boundary conditions [78]. These phenomena have attracted a great deal of interest and attention in recent years, and an excellent account of our present state of knowledge has been given by Arls [45]. [Pg.156]

Thermal transpiration and thermal diffusion will not be considered here, but it would be incorrect to assume that their influence is negligible, or even small in all circumstances. Recent results of Wong et al. [843 indi cate that they may Influence computed values of the effectiveness factor iby as much as 30. An account of thermal transpiration and thermal diffu-Ision is given in Appendix I. [Pg.157]

Effectiveness factor Effervescent tablets Effexor Effluents Effluent treatment Efflux viscometers... [Pg.352]

Catalyst Effectiveness. Even at steady-state, isothermal conditions, consideration must be given to the possible loss in catalyst activity resulting from gradients. The loss is usually calculated based on the effectiveness factor, which is the diffusion-limited reaction rate within catalyst pores divided by the reaction rate at catalyst surface conditions (50). The effectiveness factor E, in turn, is related to the Thiele modulus,

first-order rate constant, a the internal surface area, and the effective diffusivity. It is desirable for E to be as close as possible to its maximum value of unity. Various formulas have been developed for E, which are particularly usehil for analyzing reactors that are potentially subject to thermal instabilities, such as hot spots and temperature mnaways (1,48,51). [Pg.516]

The result is shown in Figure 10, which is a plot of the dimensionless effectiveness factor as a function of the dimensionless Thiele modulus ( ), which is R.(k/Dwhere R is the radius of the catalyst particle and k is the reaction rate constant. The effectiveness factor is defined as the ratio of the rate of the reaction divided by the rate that would be observed in the absence of a mass transport influence. The effectiveness factor would be unity if the catalyst were nonporous. Therefore, the reaction rate is... [Pg.171]

Figure 10 shows that Tj is a unique function of the Thiele modulus. When the modulus ( ) is small (- SdSl), the effectiveness factor is unity, which means that there is no effect of mass transport on the rate of the catalytic reaction. When ( ) is greater than about 1, the effectiveness factor is less than unity and the reaction rate is influenced by mass transport in the pores. When the modulus is large (- 10), the effectiveness factor is inversely proportional to the modulus, and the reaction rate (eq. 19) is proportional to k ( ), which, from the definition of ( ), implies that the rate and the observed reaction rate constant are proportional to (1 /R)(f9This result shows that both the rate constant, ie, a measure of the intrinsic activity of the catalyst, and the effective diffusion coefficient, ie, a measure of the resistance to transport of the reactant offered by the pore stmcture, influence the rate. It is not appropriate to say that the reaction is diffusion controlled it depends on both the diffusion and the chemical kinetics. In contrast, as shown by equation 3, a reaction in solution can be diffusion controlled, depending on D but not on k. [Pg.172]

The mass transport influence is easy to diagnose experimentally. One measures the rate at various values of the Thiele modulus the modulus is easily changed by variation of R, the particle size. Cmshing and sieving the particles provide catalyst samples for the experiments. If the rate is independent of the particle size, the effectiveness factor is unity for all of them. If the rate is inversely proportional to particle size, the effectiveness factor is less than unity and

experimental points allow triangulation on the curve of Figure 10 and estimation of Tj and ( ). It is also possible to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient and thereby to estimate Tj and ( ) from a single measurement of the rate (48). [Pg.172]

Intraparticle mass transport resistance can lead to disguises in selectivity. If a series reaction A — B — C takes place in a porous catalyst particle with a small effectiveness factor, the observed conversion to the intermediate B is less than what would be observed in the absence of a significant mass transport influence. This happens because as the resistance to transport of B in the pores increases, B is more likely to be converted to C rather than to be transported from the catalyst interior to the external surface. This result has important consequences in processes such as selective oxidations, in which the desired product is an intermediate and not the total oxidation product CO2. [Pg.172]

Rates and selectivities of soHd catalyzed reactions can also be influenced by mass transport resistance in the external fluid phase. Most reactions are not influenced by external-phase transport, but the rates of some very fast reactions, eg, ammonia oxidation, are deterrnined solely by the resistance to this transport. As the resistance to mass transport within the catalyst pores is larger than that in the external fluid phase, the effectiveness factor of a porous catalyst is expected to be less than unity whenever the external-phase mass transport resistance is significant, A practical catalyst that is used under such circumstances is the ammonia oxidation catalyst. It is a nonporous metal and consists of layers of wire woven into a mesh. [Pg.172]

An immobilized enzyme-carrier complex is a special case that can employ the methodology developed for evaluation of a heterogeneous cat ytic system. The enzyme complex also has external diffusional effects, pore diffusional effects, and an effectiveness factor. When carried out in aqueous solutions, heat transfer is usually good, and it is safe to assume that isothermal conditions prevail for an immobihzed enzyme complex. [Pg.2150]

Treatment of thermal conductivity inside the catalyst can be done similarly to that for pore diffusion. The major difference is that while diffusion can occur in the pore volume only, heat can be conducted in both the fluid and solid phases. For strongly exothermic reactions and catalysts with poor heat conductivity, the internal overheating of the catalyst is a possibility. This can result in an effectiveness factor larger than unity. [Pg.26]

Chapter 2 discussed the possible influence of atmospheric dispersion on vapor cloud explosion or flash fire effects. Factors such as flammable cloud size, homogeneity, and location are largely determined by the manner of flammable material released and turbulent dispersion into the atmosphere following release. Several models for calculating release and dispersion effects have been developed. Hanna and Drivas (1987) provide clear guidance on model selection for various accident scenarios. [Pg.47]

Diffusion effects can be expected in reactions that are very rapid. A great deal of effort has been made to shorten the diffusion path, which increases the efficiency of the catalysts. Pellets are made with all the active ingredients concentrated on a thin peripheral shell and monoliths are made with very thin washcoats containing the noble metals. In order to convert 90% of the CO from the inlet stream at a residence time of no more than 0.01 sec, one needs a first-order kinetic rate constant of about 230 sec-1. When the catalytic activity is distributed uniformly through a porous pellet of 0.15 cm radius with a diffusion coefficient of 0.01 cm2/sec, one obtains a Thiele modulus y> = 22.7. This would yield an effectiveness factor of 0.132 for a spherical geometry, and an apparent kinetic rate constant of 30.3 sec-1 (106). [Pg.100]

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