Information from an n.m.r. spectrum is classified into the chemical shift, <5 (the relative shift from a standard [Me Si for H, CC13F for which is rendered independent of the field), and the coupling constants, J, which are determined directly from the spectra. [Pg.282]

IVR in tlie example of the CH clnomophore in CHF is thus at the origin of a redistribution process which is, despite its coherent nature, of a statistical character. In CHD, the dynamics after excitation of the stretching manifold reveals a less complete redistribution process in the same time interval [97]. The reason for this is a smaller effective coupling constant between the Fenni modes of CHD (by a factor of four) when... [Pg.1072]

The only tenn in this expression that we have not already seen is a, the vibration-rotation coupling constant. It accounts for the fact that as the molecule vibrates, its bond length changes which in turn changes the moment of inertia. Equation B1.2.2 can be simplified by combming the vibration-rotation constant with the rotational constant, yielding a vibrational-level-dependent rotational constant. [Pg.1153]

Because J arises from the magnetic interactions of nuclei, the simplest factor affecting it is the product yjY of the two nuclear magnetogyric ratios involved. For example, in FI F is 82 FIz, i.e. x yo/yf - This totally predictable factor is sometimes discounted by quoting the reduced coupling constant =... [Pg.1452]

With relatively simple spectra, it is usually possible to extract the individual coupling constants by inspection, and to pair them by size in order to discover what atoms they coimect. However, the spectra of larger molecules present more of a challenge. The multiplets may overlap or be obscured by the presence of several unequal but similarly sized couplings. Also, if any chiral centres are present, then the two hydrogens in a... [Pg.1455]

Venanzi T J 1982 Nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants and electronic structure in molecules J. Chem. Educ. 59 144-8... [Pg.1464]

Metal nucleus quadrupole coupling constants in aluminum, gallium and indium acetylacetonates J. Magn. Reson. 48 503-11... [Pg.1518]

Champmartin D and Rubini P 1996 Determination of the 0-17 quadrupolar coupling constant and of the C-13 chemical shielding tensor anisotropy of the CO groups of pentane-2,4-dione and beta-diketonate complexes in solution. NMR relaxation study/norg. Chem. 35 179-83... [Pg.1518]

Hence, a measurement of hyperfme coupling constants provides infonnation on spin densities at certain positions in the molecule and thus renders a map of tlie electronic wavefiinction. [Pg.1556]

The simplest system exliibiting a nuclear hyperfme interaction is the hydrogen atom with a coupling constant of 1420 MHz. If different isotopes of the same element exhibit hyperfme couplings, their ratio is detemiined by the ratio of the nuclear g-values. Small deviations from this ratio may occur for the Femii contact interaction, since the electron spin probes the inner stmcture of the nucleus if it is in an s orbital. However, this so-called hyperfme anomaly is usually smaller than 1 %. [Pg.1556]

The coupling constants of the hyperfme and the electron Zeeman interactions are scalar as long as radicals in isotropic solution are considered, leading to the Hamiltonian... [Pg.1567]

Determination of relative signs of isotropic hyperfine coupling constants J. Chem. Rhys. 63 3515-22... [Pg.1588]

The radical cation of 1 (T ) is produced by a photo-induced electron transfer reaction with an excited electron acceptor, chloranil. The major product observed in the CIDNP spectrum is the regenerated electron donor, 1. The parameters for Kaptein s net effect rule in this case are that the RP is from a triplet precursor (p. is +), the recombination product is that which is under consideration (e is +) and Ag is negative. This leaves the sign of the hyperfine coupling constant as the only unknown in the expression for the polarization phase. Roth et aJ [10] used the phase and intensity of each signal to detemiine the relative signs and magnitudes of the... [Pg.1601]

The CIDNP spectrum is shown in figure B 1.16.1 from the introduction, top trace, while a dark spectrum is shown for comparison in figure B 1.16.1 bottom trace. Because the sign and magnitude of the hyperfine coupling constant can be a measure of the spin density on a carbon, Roth et aJ [10] were able to use the... [Pg.1601]

As for CIDNP, the polarization pattern is multiplet (E/A or A/E) for each radical if Ag is smaller than the hyperfme coupling constants. In the case where Ag is large compared with the hyperfmes, net polarization (one radical A and the other E or vice versa) is observed. A set of mles similar to those for CIDNP have been developed for both multiplet and net RPM in CIDEP (equation (B1.16.8) and equation (B1.16.9)) [36]. In both expressions, p is postitive for triplet precursors and negative for singlet precursors. J is always negative for neutral RPs, but there is evidence for positive J values in radical ion reactions [37]. In equation (B 1.16.8),... [Pg.1607]

For example, if the molecular structure of one or both members of the RP is unknown, the hyperfine coupling constants and -factors can be measured from the spectrum and used to characterize them, in a fashion similar to steady-state EPR. Sometimes there is a marked difference in spin relaxation times between two radicals, and this can be measured by collecting the time dependence of the CIDEP signal and fitting it to a kinetic model using modified Bloch equations [64]. [Pg.1616]

A simple, non-selective pulse starts the experiment. This rotates the equilibrium z magnetization onto the v axis. Note that neither the equilibrium state nor the effect of the pulse depend on the dynamics or the details of the spin Hamiltonian (chemical shifts and coupling constants). The equilibrium density matrix is proportional to F. After the pulse the density matrix is therefore given by and it will evolve as in equation (B2.4.27). If (B2.4.28) is substituted into (B2.4.30), the NMR signal as a fimction of time t, is given by (B2.4.32). In this equation there is a distinction between the sum of the operators weighted by the equilibrium populations, F, from the unweighted sum, 7. The detector sees each spin (but not each coherence ) equally well. [Pg.2100]

For example, the observed transitions of an AB spin system have a Liouville matrix given m equation (B2.4.35). The coupling constant is J, and it is assumed that ciig = = -5/2, so that 5 is the frequency... [Pg.2101]

In this equation, the primes on the imaginary parts indicate that the Lamior frequencies and coupling constants will be different. Also, if the equilibrium constant for the exchange is not 1, then the forward and reverse rates will not be equal. Note that the 1,2 block, in the top right, represents the rate from site 2 into site 1. [Pg.2102]

There are other important properties tliat can be measured from microwave and radiofrequency spectra of complexes. In particular, tire dipole moments and nuclear quadmpole coupling constants of complexes may contain useful infonnation on tire stmcture or potential energy surface. This is most easily seen in tire case of tire dipole moment. The dipole moment of tire complex is a vector, which may have components along all tire principal inertial axes. [Pg.2442]

If the solution of the zero-order Schiodinger equation [i.e., all teiins in (17) except V(r,Ro) are neglected] yields an/-fold degenerate electronic term, the degeneracy may be removed by the vibronic coupling tenns. If F) and T ) are the two degenerate wave functions, then the vibronic coupling constant... [Pg.356]

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