A particular situation where bias may be important is in statistical meta-analysis, where statistical estimates are combined across studies. When estimates from individual studies may be averaged arithmetically, it is better to average unbiased estimates (Rao 1973, Section 3a). In case of biases that are consistent across studies, an arithmetic average would have a bias of the same sign, regardless of the number of studies included in the analysis. The average of biased estimates could fail to be consistent (in the statistical sense). [Pg.43]

The viscosity is in cP and E0c is fractional.) The volatility and viscosity are evaluated at the average arithmetic temperature between the column top and bottom temperatures. The relative volatility is between the key components. [Pg.53]

Wendy tutors math students after school every day for five days. Each day, she tutors twice as many students as she tutored the previous day. If she tutors t students the first day, what is the average (arithmetic mean) number of students she tutors each day over the course of the week ... [Pg.230]

In his experiments, Martin used the average arithmetic diameter dav as a measure of surface. Using this diameter he obtained values of ag for crushed quartz ranging from 2.0-2.5. These values of a3 are considerably less than the value of t = 3.1416 taken for spheres. [Pg.332]

Figure 2 shows the convergence of the CPT procedure described above, when it is applied to the ab initio surface for HCN CNH computed by Tennyson and co-workers [7,8]. This figure indicates, for each order s of the perturbation procedure, the average arithmetic error between the energies of the lowest 101... [Pg.274]

arithmetic mean) and the standard deviation of the density of water data given in Table 14.5. Refer to Chapter 19, Section 19.5, to learn about what die value of standard deviation for a set of data points represents. [Pg.385]

In laminar flow the average coefficient h depends strongly on heated length. The average (arithmetic mean) temperature drop AT is used in the equation to calculate the heat-transfer rate q. [Pg.238]

X (Average, Arithmetic Mean). The mean value of a sample of observations of the variable x. [Pg.424]

The maximal deviation of all mq)erimental data does not exceed 20%. The average arithmetic error is 9J2% and fee avma sqimre error -15.4%. [Pg.252]

When sampling crude oil tanks with diameters in excess of 4S m (ISO ft), additional samples should be taken from any other available gaging hatches located around the perimeter of the tank roof, safety requirements permitting. All the samples should be individually analyzed using the same test method and the results should then be averaged arithmetically. [Pg.636]

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