There are two approaches to explain physical mechanism of the phenomenon. The first model is based on the existence of the difference between the saturated vapor pressures above two menisci in dead-end capillary. It results in the evaporation of a liquid from the meniscus of smaller curvature ( classical capillary imbibition) and the condensation of its vapor upon the meniscus of larger curvature originally existed due to capillary condensation. [Pg.616]

At first we tried to explain the phenomenon on the base of the existence of the difference between the saturated vapor pressures above two menisci in dead-end capillary [12]. It results in the evaporation of a liquid from the meniscus of smaller curvature ( classical capillary imbibition) and the condensation of its vapor upon the meniscus of larger curvature originally existed due to capillary condensation. We worked out the mathematical description of both gas-vapor diffusion and evaporation-condensation processes in cone s channel. Solving the system of differential equations for evaporation-condensation processes, we ve derived the formula for the dependence of top s (or inner) liquid column growth on time. But the calculated curves for the kinetics of inner column s length are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the experimental ones [12]. [Pg.616]

Deijaguin and Zorin report that at 25°C, water at 0.98 of the saturation vapor pressure adsorbs on quartz to give a film 40 A thick. Calculate the value of the disjoining pressure of this film and give its sign. [Pg.251]

A heat of immersion may refer to the immersion of a clean solid surface, qs.imm. or to the immersion of a solid having an adsorbed film on the surface. If the immersion of this last is into liquid adsorbate, we then report qsv.imm if tbe adsorbed film is in equilibrium with the saturated vapor pressure of the adsorbate (i.e., the vapor pressure of the liquid adsorbate P ), we will write It follows from these definitions... [Pg.352]

It is important to keep in mind that the phases are mutually in equilibrium. In particular, the designation is a reminder that the solid surface must be in equilibrium with the saturated vapor pressure and that there must therefore be an adsorbed film of film pressure (see Section X-3B). Thus... [Pg.353]

In the second picture, an interfacial layer or region persists over several molecular diameters due to a more slowly decaying interaction potential with the solid (note Section X-7C). This situation would then be more like the physical adsorption of vapors (see Chapter XVII), which become multilayer near the saturation vapor pressure (e.g.. Fig. X-15). Adsorption from solution, from this point of view, corresponds to a partition between bulk and interfacial phases here the Polanyi potential concept may be used (see Sections X-7C, XI-1 A, and XVII-7). [Pg.390]

The most convenient mathematical method of describing pervaporation is to divide the overall separation processes into two steps, as shown in Figure 40. The first is evaporation of the feed Hquid to form a (hypothetical) saturated vapor phase on the feed side of the membrane. The second is permeation of this vapor through the membrane to the low pressure permeate side of the membrane. Although no evaporation actually takes place on the feed side of the membrane during pervaporation, this approach is mathematically simple and is thermodynamically completely equivalent to the physical process. The evaporation step from the feed hquid to the saturated vapor phase produces a separation, which can be defined (eq. 13) as the ratio of... [Pg.86]

Table 4. Saturated Vapor Pressure, of 0- and />Hydroxybenzoic Acids ... |

Cp = specific heat e = specific internal energy h = enthalpy k =therm conductivity p = pressure, s = specific entropy t = temperature T = absolute temperature u = specific internal energy [L = viscosity V = specific volume f = subscript denoting saturated hquid g = subscript denoting saturated vapor... [Pg.249]

From Viikalovich, Ivanov, Foldn, and Yakovlev, Theimophysical Pivpeities of Mercuiy, Standartov, Moscow, 1971. For the saturated liquid the specific volume at 203.15 Kis 7.26239 X 10 mV kg, etc. All the tabular values for 203.15 K, 213.15 K, 223.15 K, and 233.15 K represent a metastahle equilibrium between the subcooled liquid and the saturated vapor. [Pg.294]

Enthalpy of Vaporization The enthalpy (heat) of vaporization AHv is defined as the difference of the enthalpies of a unit mole or mass of a saturated vapor and saturated liqmd of a pure component i.e., at a temperature (below the critical temperature) anci corresponding vapor pressure. AHy is related to vapor pressure by the thermodynamically exact Clausius-Clapeyron equation ... [Pg.393]

Zg = compressibility fac tor of the saturated vapor Zl = compressibility fac tor of the saturated liquid = vapor pressure T = absolute temperature... [Pg.393]

Extension of tbe pressure range to P,. = 14 is available in tbe Technical Data Book. For saturated vapor densities, tbe values of Z and Z are tabulated as a... [Pg.400]

The fugacityy) of pure compressed liqiiid i must be evaluated at the T and P of the equilibrium mixture. This is done in two steps. First, one calculates the fugacity coefficient of saturated vapor 9i = by an integrated form of Eq. (4-161), written for pure species i and evalu-atea at temperature T and the corresponding vapor pressure P = Equation (4-276) written for pure species i becomes... [Pg.535]

This fugacity coefficient applies equally to saturated vapor and to saturated liquid at given temperature T Equation (4-278) can therefore equally well be written... [Pg.535]

Condensation Mechanisms Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor comes in contact with a surface whose temperature is below the saturation temperature. Normally a film of condensate is formed on the surface, and the thickness of this film, per unit of breadth, increases with increase in extent of the surface. This is called film-type condensation. [Pg.566]

The physical properties of the liquid, rather than those of the vapor, are used For determining the film coefficient for condensation. Nus-selt [2. Ver. Dt.sch. Ing., 60, 541, 569 (1916)] derived theoretical relationships for predicting the film coefficient of heat transfer for condensation of a pure saturated vapor. A number of simplifying assumptions were used in the derivation. [Pg.566]

Subcooled-hquid feed 9 > 1 Saturated-liquid feed 9 = 1 Partially flashed feed 1 > 9 > 0 Saturated-vapor feed 9 = 6 Superheated-vapor feed 9 < 0 The 9 value for a particular feed can be estimated from... [Pg.1267]

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