The character of AV will determine the type of stationary value at x = Xi. Specifically, the dominant term in the Taylor series for AV must be examined in order to determine whether AV is always positive (a relative minimum), always negative (a relative maximum), sometimes negative and sometimes positive (an inflection point), or always zero (a neutral point). For AV to be positive, the leading term in the Taylor series, Equation (B.4), which is by inspection the largest term because h is a very small number, must be positive, i.e.. [Pg.480]

If the first nonzero derivative evaluated at x = x is even and greater than zero, then V(xi) is a relative minimum. [Pg.481]

The absolute maximum (or minimum) of f(x) at x = a exists if f(x) < f(a) (or f(x) > f(a)) for all x in the domain of the function and need not be a relative maximum or minimum. If a function is defined and continuous on a closed interval, it tvill altvays have an absolute minimum and an absolute maximum, and they tvill be found either at a relative minimum and a relative maximum or at the endpoints of the interval. [Pg.38]

Special behavior, however, is not necessarily restricted to ri as certain intermediate topologies, such as the random positioned roughly midway between 2 and 3 for which there is a relative minimum of in figure 3.46-c, are occasionally singled out. [Pg.114]

As compared to ECC produced under equilibrium conditions, ECC formed af a considerable supercooling are at thermodynamic equilibrium only from the standpoint of thermokinetics60). Indeed, under chosen conditions (fi and crystallization temperatures), these crystals exhibit some equilibrium degree of crystallinity at which a minimum free energy of the system is attained compared to all other possible states. In this sense, the system is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and is stable, i.e. it will maintain this state for any period of time after the field is removed. However, with respect to crystals with completely extended chains obtained under equilibrium conditions, this system corresponds only to a relative minimum of free energy, i.e. its state is metastable from the standpoint of equilibrium thermodynamics60,61). [Pg.237]

The angular distributions for the slow and fast 0(3P2) fragments have been determined separately. The division between slow and fast fragments corresponds to the relative minimum in the 0(3P2) speed... [Pg.313]

The calculated potential energy curve (see Figure 5) is characterised by the presence of one relative and one absolute minimum, corresponding to the ionic and covalent structures, respectively. At the absolute minimum the rnci is equal to 1.2758 A, close to the bond length in isolated H-Cl, while at the relative minimum rjjci is 2.4 A, typical of the H30 -Cr ionic system. The potential energy barrier which separates the two minima is located at a rnci distance of 2.0 A. [Pg.373]

The search for the optimum usually starts from the coordinates in the plane of the first two eigenvectors. However, to avoid the iteration (usually done with the method of steepest descent) stopping at a relative minimum, it is advisable to repeat the search from a different starting position, such as that given by the coordinates of two original variables. [Pg.104]

The second paper270 investigated the barrier to internal rotation of the Me group, also with a DZ basis 75 points on the potential surface were studied and the barrier was determined. It was also established that this approach (SCF theory) does not predict the existence of a relative minimum in the reaction co-ordinate. [Pg.35]

required solution ) occasionally a wavefunction is obtained that is not the best one available from the chosen basis set. This phenomenon is called wavefunction instability. To see how this could happen note that the SCF method is an optimization procedure somewhat analogous to geometry optimization (Section 2.4). In geometry optimization we seek a relative minimum or a transition state on a hypersurface in a mathematical energy versus nuclear coordinates space defined by E =/(nuclear coordinates) in wavefunction... [Pg.195]

The main advantage of MP2/6-31G optimizations over HF/3-21 ( > or HF/ 6-31G ones is not that the geometries are much better, but rather that for a stationary point, MP2 optimizations followed by frequency calculations are more likely to give the correct curvature of the potential energy surface (Chapter 2) for the species than are HF optimizations/frequencies. In other words, the correlated calculation tells us more reliably whether the species is a relative minimum or merely a transition state (or even a higher-order saddle point see Chapter 2). Thus fluorodiazomethane [91] and several oxirenes [53] are (apparently correctly) predicted by MP2 optimizations to be merely transition states, while HF optimizations... [Pg.288]

A 7i-cyclopropane with the end methylene groups coplanar, as shown here, is (0,0)-trimethylene specifying the twist dihedral allows designation of the other conformers, e.g. (0,90)-trimethylene in which the putative 7i bond is completely broken [56]. The model chemistries, then, each led to two trimethylene stationary points HF to a hilltop and a transition state, MP2 to a transition state and a relative minimum, and B3LYP to two transition states. [Pg.538]

Step 3 is a geometry optimization. Appropriate keywords might be CASSCF (2,2)/6-31G, specifying a CASSCF(2,2) procedure (a limited Cl optimization) using the 6-31G basis, which will normally be the smallest chosen. Other keywords might dictate the information to be taken from step 2 and how to calculate the initial Hessian (e.g., use a semiempirical calculation) for the optimization. Figure 8.11 compares our CASSCF(2,2)/6-31G C2h relative minimum (no imaginary frequencies - see below) with the C2h CASSCF(4,4)/6-31G minimum of Doubleday [61]. [Pg.542]

Fig. 8.11 The C2h 1,4-butanediyl diradical relative minimum (no imaginary frequencies), as calculated by CASSCF(2,2)/6-31G (this work) and CASSCF(4,4)/6-31G (Doubleday [61], Fig. 1 and Table III)... |

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.111 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.111 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.66 ]

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