An invariance principle then requires that the following three postulates be satisfied ... [Pg.665]

Now in quantum theory the description of a physical system in the Heisenberg picture for a given observer O is by means of operators Q, which satisfy certain equations of motion and commutation rules with respect to O s frame of reference (coordinate system x). The above notion of an invariance principle can be stated alternatively as follows If, when we change this coordinate frame of reference (i.e., for observer O ) we are able to find a new set of operators that obeys the same equations of motion and the same commutation rules with respect to the new frame of reference (coordinate system x ) we then say that these observers are equivalent and the theory invariant under the transformation x - x. The observable consequences of theory in the new frame (for observer O ) will then clearly be the same as those in the old frame. [Pg.665]

One next verifies that the primed operators will satisfy the same equations of motion with respect to the x coordinates as do the unprimed operators with respect to the x coordinates (Postulate 3 of an invariance principle) provided that... [Pg.666]

Invariance principle, 664 Invariance properties of quantum electrodynamics, 664 Inventory problem, 252,281,286 Inverse collisions, 11 direct and, 12 Inverse operator, 688 Investment problem, 286 Irreducible representations of crystallographic point groups, 726 Isoperimetric problems, 305 Iteration for the inverse, 60... [Pg.776]

Reductans Bridge principles Boundary conditions Redluetems A Invariance principles Boundary conditions... [Pg.222]

FIG. 11.1. Reductionism, explanatory and heuristic. The left side illustrates the classical view of theory reduction as an explanatory relation, while the right side illustrates the heuristic use of theory reduction in the text. Highlighted items are those whose discovery drives reduction. In explanatory reduction, the reducing and reduced theories (reductans and reductandum) are in hand and the discovery of bridge principles completes the reduction. In heuristic reduction, the reductandum and invariance principles are in hand and the goal is construction of a reducing theory... [Pg.222]

Since a CASSCF calculation is faster than a direct SC calculation, owing to the advantages associated with orbital orthogonality in CASSCF, it is practical to extract an approximate SC wave function (or another type of VB function, e.g., a multiconfigurational one) from a CASSCF wave function. The conversion from one wave function to the other relies on the fact that a CASSCF wave function is invariant under linear transformations of the active orbitals. Based on this invariance principle, two different procedures were developed and both share the same name CASVB . Thus, CASVB is not a straightforward VB method, but rather a projection method that bridges between CASSCF and VB wave functions. [Pg.244]

J. J. Sakurai Invariance Principles and Elementary Particles Princeton University Press, Princeton (1964) and R,. F. Streater, and A. S. Wightman PCT, Spin Statistics, and All That (Benjamin, New York, 1964)... [Pg.487]

A brief mathematical digression on Liapunov stability theory will set the stage for the results of this chapter. Those familiar with the LaSalle corollary to Liapunov stability theory, also called the invariance principle by some authors, can skip immediately to Section 3. [Pg.28]

Invoke the invariance principle for chemical potentials by comparing Eq. (3.4.20) with Eq. (3.5.4a). Find an expression relating y/lT, P, ci) to y, (T, P, x,). How do your results differ from those cited in this section in the text ... [Pg.176]

The dimensional invariance principle states that the constitutive equations must be dimensionally correct, and that arbitrary functional dependences can only occur through dimensionless variables. [Pg.544]

Here we concentrate on the discussion of rotational effects for the two modes (m, k ) and k ) which should still be degenerate in an external field B = Bz, if the interaction has only strain contributions. To derive the rotational interaction part we use an elegant method due to Goto et al. (1986), starting from the rotational invariance principle as formulated above... [Pg.271]

Mandelbrot [2, 3] systematized and organized mathematical ideas concerning complex structures such as trees, coastlines and non-equilibrium growth processes. He pointed out that such patterns share a central property and symmetry which may be called scale invariance. These objects are invariant under a transformation, which replaces a small part with bigger part that is under a change in a scale of the picture. Scale-invariant structures are called fractals [7]. More recently the relevance of natural and mathematical structure has become clearer with the help of computer simulation. Self-similarity turns out to be a general invariance principle of these structures. [Pg.241]

In effect, we are emphasizing the power of the semi-grouj) concept not only in time, the classical parameter, but also in other physically meaningful variables, such as space and energy, as well. A formal statement of the principle of invariant imbedding as well as of its history and relationships to other general principles of mathematical physics can be found in [1]. Let us, however, emphasize the fundamental pioneering work of Ambarzumian [2], and Chandrasekhar [3], in the use of invariance principles in the field of radiative transfer. [Pg.206]

A question open for discussion is whether the equations of motion or the invariance principles are the more basic first principles It was a choice of Einstein that he gave the Lorentz transformation primary importance, and so the equations of motion had to be modified. [Pg.85]

As it has turned out that consistency in the mean does not hold in general, several people have presented a proof of the fact that the stochastic model of a certain simple special reaction tends to the corresponding deterministic model in the thermodynamic limit. This expression means that the number of particles and the volume of the vessel tend to infinity at the same time and in such a way that the concentration of the individual components (i.e. the ratio of the number and volume) tends to a constant and the two models will be close to each other. In addition to this the fluctuation around the deterministic value is normally distributed as has been shown in a special case by Delbriick (later head of the famous phage group) almost fifty years ago (Delbriick, 1940). To put it into present-day mathematical terms the law of the large numbers, the central limit theorem, and the invariance principle all hold. These statements have been proved for a large class of reactions for those with conservative, reversible mechanisms. Kurtz used the combinatorial model, and the same model was used by L. Arnold (Arnold, 1980) when he generalised the results for the cell model of reactions with diffusion. [Pg.160]

The kind of mechanisms that lead to gelation characterised by infinite clusters are not clear. The infinite cluster contains of course a finite fraction G(t) of the total mass (M(t) + G(t) = 1). Pre-gel and post-gel states separated by a gelation transition can be analysed in terms of a kinetic equation. Sol-gel transitions are similar to phase transition phenomena. It is not surprising that scale invariance principles elaborated in the theory of phase transition can be adopted for polymer systems. Modern percolation theory (see, for example Stauffer (1979)) offer a conceptual framework to treat cluster formation. [Pg.209]

Based on invariance principles and on experimental results, one can make the following conclusions. The possible forms of weak interaction are the vector (V) and axialvector (A)... [Pg.134]

Rohr K. Extraction of 3D anatomical point landmarks based on invariance principles. Pattern Recognit 1999 32(1) 3-15. [Pg.56]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.44 , Pg.50 ]

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