The idea behind this approach is simple. First, we compose the characteristic vector from all the descriptors we can compute. Then, we define the maximum length of the optimal subset, i.e., the input vector we shall actually use during modeling. As is mentioned in Section 9.7, there is always some threshold beyond which an inaease in the dimensionality of the input vector decreases the predictive power of the model. Note that the correlation coefficient will always be improved with an increase in the input vector dimensionality. [Pg.218]

The Kohonen network or self-organizing map (SOM) was developed by Teuvo Kohonen [11]. It can be used to classify a set of input vectors according to their similarity. The result of such a network is usually a two-dimensional map. Thus, the Kohonen network is a method for projecting objects from a multidimensional space into a two-dimensional space. This projection keeps the topology of the multidimensional space, i.e., points which are close to one another in the multidimensional space are neighbors in the two-dimensional space as well. An advantage of this method is that the results of such a mapping can easily be visualized. [Pg.456]

An input vector is fed into the network and that neuron is determined whose weights are most similar to the input data vector. [Pg.456]

The architecture of a counter-propagation network resembles that of a Kohonen network, but in addition to the cubic Kohonen layer (input layer) it has an additional layer, the output layer. Thus, an input object consists of two parts, the m-dimeiisional input vector (just as for a Kohonen network) plus a second k-dimensional vector with the properties for the object. [Pg.459]

typical problem for a Boltzman Machine is to obtain a set of weights such that the states of the visible neurons take on some desired probability distribution. For example, the task may he to teach the net to learn that the first component of an Ai-component input vector has value +1 40% of the time. To accompli.sh this, a Boltzman Machine uses the familiar gradient-descent technique, but not on the energy of the net instead, it maximizes the relative entropy of the system. [Pg.534]

Fig. 34.20. ITTFA projection of the input vector iii in the PC-space gives out]. A new input target in2 is obtained by adapting outi to specific constraints. in2 projected in the PC-space gives out2. |

There exist many different types of ART. The variant ARTl is the original Grossberg algorithm. It allows only binary input vectors. ART2 allows also continuous input. It is the basic variant of this type that we will describe. [Pg.693]

The first input vector is copied into the weight vector of the first unit, which becomes now an active unit. [Pg.693]

For the next input vector the similarity, p,, with the weight vector, W , of each active unit, k is calculated ... [Pg.693]

The similarity between x, and the winning unit is compared with a threshold value, p, in the range from zero to one. When p, < P the input pattern, x, is not considered to fall into the existing class. It is decided that a so-called novelty is detected and the input vector is copied into one of the unused dummy units. Otherwise the input pattern, x, is considered to fall into the existing class (to resonate with it). A large p will result in many novelties, thus many small clusters. A small p results in few novelties and thus in a few large clusters. [Pg.694]

The choice of the objective function is very important, as it dictates not only the values of the parameters but also their statistical properties. We may encounter two broad estimation cases. Explicit estimation refers to situations where the output vector is expressed as an explicit function of the input vector and the parameters. Implicit estimation refers to algebraic models in which output and input vector are related through an implicit function. [Pg.14]

We want to plot y(t) if we have a sinusoidal input, x(t) = sin(t). Here we need the function lsimo, a general simulation function which takes any given input vector. [Pg.229]

The symmetry and simplicity of the matrix C (and hence the extreme rapidity of the FFT) is determined by the particular order employed in both the input vector / and the output F. Thus, both sets of data must be rearranged from what would be normally expected. While this problem represents an inconvenience for a programmer, it is carried out automatically in available programs. Although it would probably go un-noticed by the user, it is important for him or her to understand the fundamental algorithm of the FFT, which is based on the inverse binary order explained here. [Pg.385]

Both cases can be dealt with both by supervised and unsupervised variants of networks. The architecture and the training of supervised networks for spectra interpretation is similar to that used for calibration. The input vector consists in a set of spectral features yt(Zj) (e.g., intensities at selected wavelengths zi). The output vector contains information on the presence and absence of certain structure elements and groups fixed by learning rules (Fig. 8.24). Various types of ANN models may be used for spectra interpretation, viz mainly such as Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) and Backpropagation Networks (BPN). The correlation... [Pg.273]

As described by Brogan ( ) the addition of state variable feedback to the system of Figure 1 results in the control scheme shown in Figure 5. The matrix K has been added. This redefines the input vector as... [Pg.196]

Assign to each node in the input layer the appropriate value in the input vector. Feed this input to all nodes in the first hidden layer. [Pg.31]

The distance between the node weights and the input vector calculated in this way is also known as the node s activation level. This terminology is widespread, but counterintuitive, since a high activation level sounds desirable and might suggest a good match, while the reverse is actually the case. [Pg.62]

Mathematically it would make no sense to define an absolute concept of correctness. We define only a relative concept. The definition of partial correctness is designed to capture the idea that a program viien fed with a proper input or inputs -an input vector satisfying some input criterion - will give, if and when it halts, an output or outputs fulfilling some designated criterion. [Pg.44]

If we omit the input criterion in discussing partial or total correctness it is understood that we take as input criterion the function which is TRUE on all of Dn - i.e., all possible input vectors are regarded as legitimate input. [Pg.45]

Let a be an input vector such that A(a) holds and computation (P,I,a) halts with output b. This computation follows some path a which can be divided into segments such that each in starts at tagged point t. in S and... [Pg.161]

Any finite interpretation is necessarily recursive. There are only a finite number of function letters and predicate letters in P and so for each finite domain D only a finite number of possible assignments of functions from iP to D or eP to 0,1. We can recursively enumerate all finite interpretations. A program must loop if it ever enters the sane statement twice with all values specified alike. If finite domain D of interpretation I has d objects and P has n statements and m variables of any kind, then any execution sequence under I with more than ncP steps must twice enter the same statement with the same specification of all variables and hence must represent an infinite loop. Hence for each input vector a computation (P,I,a) diverges if and only if it fails to halt within ndm steps. So for each finite interpretation we can decide whether P baits for some inputs or all inputs. Thus (5) and (6) are partially decidable. [Pg.209]

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