We consider an isolated molecule in field-free space with Hamiltonian //. We let Pbe the total angular momentum operator of the molecule, that is... [Pg.138]

The solutions can be labelled by their values of F and m.p. We say that F and m.p are good quantum. num.bers. With tiiis labelling, it is easier to keep track of the solutions and we can use the good quantum numbers to express selection rules for molecular interactions and transitions. In field-free space only states having the same values of F and m.p can interact, and an electric dipole transition between states with F = F and F" will take place if and only if... [Pg.140]

The possible types of symmetry for the Hamiltonian of an isolated molecnle in field-free space (all of them are discussed in more detail later on in the article) can be listed as follows ... [Pg.141]

We hope that by now the reader has it finnly in mind that the way molecular symmetry is defined and used is based on energy invariance and not on considerations of the geometry of molecular equilibrium structures. Synnnetry defined in this way leads to the idea of consenntion. For example, the total angular momentum of an isolated molecule m field-free space is a conserved quantity (like the total energy) since there are no tenns in the Hamiltonian that can mix states having different values of F. This point is discussed fiirther in section Al.4.3.1 and section Al.4.3.2. [Pg.141]

The translational linear momentum is conserved for an isolated molecule in field free space and, as we see below, this is closely related to the fact that the molecular Hamiltonian connmites with all... [Pg.163]

From the fact that f/conmuites with the operators Pj) h is possible to show that the linear momentum of a molecule in free space must be conserved. First we note that the time-dependent wavefiinction V(t) of a molecule fulfills the time-dependent Schrodinger equation... [Pg.165]

The central equations of electromagnetic theory are elegantly written in the fonn of four coupled equations for the electric and magnetic fields. These are known as Maxwell s equations. In free space, these equations take the fonn ... [Pg.219]

In free space (p = 0, J= 0, <[) = constant), the equations for the potentials decouple and take the following simple fonn ... [Pg.219]

Equation (A 1,6.8). along with the definitions (Al.h.S) and (Al.6.6) constitute the central equation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space. The fonn of section A 1,6.4 admits hamionic solutions of the fonn... [Pg.220]

Dote J L, Kivelson D and Schwartz R N 1981 A molecular quasi-hydrodynamic free-space model for molecular rotational relaxation J. Phys. Chem. 85 2169-80... [Pg.866]

In order to rmderstand how light can be controlled, we must first review some of tire basic properties of tire electromagnetic field [8], The electromagnetic tlieory of light is governed by tire equations of James Clerk Maxwell. The field phenomena in free space with no sources are described by tire basic set of relationships below ... [Pg.2854]

Above we described tire nature of Maxwell s equations in free space in a medium, two more vector fields need to be... [Pg.2855]

These new quantities allow us to directly relate properties of tire media to E and H. In essence tliey afford us tire opportunity to quantify tire field-matter interaction. The media response to tire fields is described generally in tenns of tire polarization, P and tire magnetization, M. (We note tliat in free space P and M=Q and we recover equation (C2.15.1 ), equation (C2.15.2 ), equation (C2.15.3 ) and equation (C2.15.4 ) above.)... [Pg.2856]

The first modification is to simply scale the dielectric permittivity of free space (T( ) by a scale factorD to rn ediate or dam pen thelong range electrostatic interactions. Its value was often set to be between 1.0 and 7H.0, the macroscopic value for water. A value of D=2..5, so that u=2..5Ug, wasoften used in early CIIARMM calculation s. [Pg.180]

Maxwell s equations can be combined (61) to describe the propagation of light ia free space, yielding the following scalar wave equation ... [Pg.165]

SL/RN Process. In the SL/RN process (Fig. 4), sized iron ore, coal, and dolomite are fed to the rotary kiln wherein the coal is gasified and the iron ore is reduced. The endothermic heat of reduction and the sensible energy that is required to heat the reactants is provided by combustion of volatiles and carbon monoxide leaving the bed with air introduced into the free space above the bed. The temperature profile in the kiln is controlled by radial air ports in the preheat zone and axial air ports in the reduction zone. Part of the coal is injected through the centerline of the kiln at the discharge end. The hot reduced iron and char is discharged into an indirect rotary dmm cooler. The cooled product is screened and magnetically separated to remove char and ash. [Pg.429]

Laser communication systems based on free-space propagation through the atmosphere suffer drawbacks because of factors like atmospheric turbulence and attenuation by rain, snow, haze, or fog. Nevertheless, free-space laser communication systems were developed for many appHcations (89—91). They employ separate components, such as lasers, modulators, collimators, and detectors. Some of the most promising appHcations are for space communications, because the problems of turbulence and opacity in the atmosphere are absent. [Pg.16]

Pigure 10 shows the typical commercial performance of LEDs used for optical data communication. Both free-space emission and fiber-coupled devices are shown, the latter exhibiting speeds of <10 ns. Typically there exists a tradeoff between speed and power in these devices, however performance has been plotted as a function of wavelength for purposes of clarity. In communication systems, photodetectors (qv) are employed as receivers rather than the human eye, making radiometric power emitted by the devices, or coupled into an optical fiber, an important figure of merit. [Pg.121]

The permeabiHty = B jH is important information for soft magnetic materials. The most often quoted values ate the initial permeabiHty and the maximum permeabiHty ]1. These correspond to the initial and maximum slopes of the virgin magnetization curve, respectively (Fig. 1). Because the value of at S/H = 0 needs to be extrapolated from measurements at finite H, the value often is quoted ia commercial catalogues at specific B or H The quoted values usually are relative to the free-space value p.Q. [Pg.367]

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