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** Computational Efforts Generation of Hypotheses **

Each iteration requires only one call of the thermodynamic liquid-liquid subroutine LILIK. The inner iteration loop requires no thermodynamic subroutine calls thus is uses extremely little computation effort. [Pg.125]

As the feed composition approaches a plait point, the rate of convergence of the calculation procedure is markedly reduced. Typically, 10 to 20 iterations are required, as shown in Cases 2 and 6 for ternary type-I systems. Very near a plait point, convergence can be extremely slow, requiring 50 iterations or more. ELIPS checks for these situations, terminates without a solution, and returns an error flag (ERR=7) to avoid unwarranted computational effort. This is not a significant disadvantage since liquid-liquid separations are not intentionally conducted near plait points. [Pg.127]

The computer subroutines for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium separations, including determination of bubble-point and dew-point temperatures and pressures, are described and listed in this Appendix. These are source routines written in American National Standard FORTRAN (FORTRAN IV), ANSI X3.9-1978, and, as such, should be compatible with most computer systems with FORTRAN IV compilers. Approximate storage requirements for these subroutines are given in Appendix J their execution times are strongly dependent on the separations being calculated but can be estimated (CDC 6400) from the times given for the thermodynamic subroutines they call (essentially all computation effort is in these thermodynamic subroutines). [Pg.318]

Before moving on to discuss metliods that go beyond the single-configuration mean-field model, it is important to examine some of the computational effort that goes into carrying out an SCE calculation. [Pg.2174]

The —(/i /2p)W (Rx) matrix does not have poles at conical intersection geometries [as opposed to W (R )] and furthermore it only appears as an additive term to the diabatic energy matrix (q ) and does not increase the computational effort for the solution of Eq. (55). Since the neglected gradient term is expected to be small, it can be reintroduced as a first-order perturbation afterward, if desired. [Pg.196]

The full dynamical treatment of electrons and nuclei together in a laboratory system of coordinates is computationally intensive and difficult. However, the availability of multiprocessor computers and detailed attention to the development of efficient software, such as ENDyne, which can be maintained and debugged continually when new features are added, make END a viable alternative among methods for the study of molecular processes. Eurthemiore, when the application of END is compared to the total effort of accurate determination of relevant potential energy surfaces and nonadiabatic coupling terms, faithful analytical fitting and interpolation of the common pointwise representation of surfaces and coupling terms, and the solution of the coupled dynamical equations in a suitable internal coordinates, the computational effort of END is competitive. [Pg.233]

The numerical part is based on two circles, C3 and C4, related to two different centers (see Fig. 13). Circle C3, with a radius of 0.4 A, has its center at the position of the (2,3) conical intersection (like before). Circle C4, with a radius 0.25 A, has its center (also) on the C v line, but at a distance of 0.2 A from the (2,3) conical intersection and closer to the two (3,4) conical intersections. The computational effort concentrates on calculating the exponential in Eq, (38) for the given set of ab initio 3 x 3 x matrices computed along the above mentioned two circles. Thus, following Eq, (28) we are interested in calculating the following expression ... [Pg.708]

The basic scheme of this algorithm is similar to cell-to-cell mapping techniques [14] but differs substantially In one important aspect If applied to larger problems, a direct cell-to-cell approach quickly leads to tremendous computational effort. Only a proper exploitation of the multi-level structure of the subdivision algorithm (also for the eigenvalue problem) may allow for application to molecules of real chemical interest. But even this more sophisticated approach suffers from combinatorial explosion already for moderate size molecules. In a next stage of development [19] this restriction will be circumvented using certain hybrid Monte-Carlo methods. [Pg.110]

Ljii.iiitiJtTi mechanical calculation on this molecule used 1000 basis functions). However, dis-nilnited multipole models have not yet been widely incorporated into force fields, not least because of the additional computational effort required. It can be complicated to calculate llic atomic forces with the distributed multipole model in particular, multipoles that are lull located on atoms generate torques, which must be analysed further to determine the roi es on the nuclei. [Pg.215]

The computational effort is significantly increased if three-body terms are included in the model. Even with a simple pairwise model, the non-bonded interactions usually require by far the greatest amount of computational effort. The number of bond, angle and torsional terms increases approximately with the number of atoms (N) in the system, but the number of non-bonded interactions increases with N. There are N(N —l)/2 distinct pairs of... [Pg.231]

** Computational Efforts Generation of Hypotheses **

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