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** Classical mechanics Lagrangian formalism **

** Lagrangian equation classical mechanics **

A familiar example of Legendre transformation is the relationship that exists between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions of classical mechanics [17]. In thermodynamics the simplest application is to the internal energy function for constant mole number U(S, V), with the differentials... [Pg.419]

This means that all moving nuclei (atoms) are treated as classical particles which is a serious approximation, but which was found to work very well (60,61). Applying the Euler-Lagrange equation (Eq. 2) to the Lagrangian C (Eq. 1) leads to the same equations as the well-known Newton s second law (Eq. 3). Or in other words, in classical mechanics the derivative of the Lagrangian is taken with respect to the nuclear positions. [Pg.114]

Let us now consider the following auxiliary classical mechanics problem with the classical Lagrangian... [Pg.449]

Following Hamilton s principle in classical mechanics, the required time dependence can be derived from a variational principle based on a seemingly artificial Lagrangian density, integrated over both space and time to define the functional... [Pg.78]

In non-relativistic classical mechanics a mechanical system can be characterised by a function called the Lagrangian, S(q, q) where q denotes the coordinates, and the motion of the system is such that the action S, defined by... [Pg.68]

Classical Mechanics of Constrained Systems within Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms... [Pg.24]

For a system with N degrees of freedom, q, i = 1 to N, this equation is obtained for each of the N coordinates qi. These are Lagrange s equations of motion, the equations of motion for a system obeying classical mechanics. Thus, the Lagrangian, which minimizes the value of the action integral along the true trajectory between the times tj and fj, is also the function which yields the equations of motion when inserted into the Euler equation (8.50). [Pg.364]

In 1933 Dirac published a paper entitled The Lagrangian in quantum mechanics . After presenting a discussion as to why the Lagrangian formulation of classical mechanics could be considered to be more fundamental than the approach based on the Hamiltonian theory, Dirac went on to say For... [Pg.422]

An alternative approach to describe steady-state thermodynamics for shear flow was formulated by Taniguchi and Morriss.192 Their method involves the development of a canonical distribution for shear flow by a Lagrangian formalism of classical mechanics. They then derive the Evans-Hanley thermodynamics, i.e. [Pg.345]

It is possible to formulate the classical laws of motion in several ways. Newton s equations are taught in every basic course of classical mechanics. However, especially in the presence of constraint forces, the equations of motion can often be presented in a simpler form by using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formalism. In short, in the Newtonian approach, an /V-point particle system is described by specifying the position xa = xa(t) of each particle a as a function of time. The positions are found by solving the equations of motion,... [Pg.272]

We may also note an analogy between mean field theory and classical mechanics, and treat the integrand of the Fb functional as the Lagrangian Then... [Pg.13]

At the outset it is important to recognize that several mathematical frameworks for the description of dynamic systems are in common use. In this context classical mechanics can be divided into three disciplines denoted by Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics reflecting three conceptually different mathematical apparatus of model formulation [35, 52, 2, 61, 38, 95, 60, 4],... [Pg.194]

Hamiltonian mechanics refers to a mathematical formalism in classical mechanics invented by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) during the early 1830 s arising from Lagrangian mechanics which was introduced about 50 years earlier by Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). The Hamiltonian equations can however be formulated on the basis of a variational principle without recourse to Lagrangian mechanics [95] [2j. [Pg.201]

From the definition of the Lagrangian function (2.6) it can be shown that the time coordinate is both homogeneous and isotropic meaning that its properties are the same in both directions [52]. For, if t is replaced by —t, the Lagrangian is unchanged, and therefore so are the equations of motion. In this sense all motions which obey the laws of classical mechanics are reversible. [Pg.239]

Earlier in this section it was commented on how the minimal-coupling QED Hamiltonian is obtained from fhe classical Lagrangian function. A few words are in order regarding the derivation of the multipolar Hamiltonian (6). One method involves the application of a canonical transformation to the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian [32]. In classical mechanics, such a transformation renders the Poisson bracket and Hamilton s canonical equations of motion invariant. In quantum mechanics, a canonical transformation preserves both the commutator and Heisenberg s operator equation of motion. The appropriate generating function that converts H uit is propor-... [Pg.9]

The use of functionals and their derivatives is not limited to density-functional theory, or even to quantum mechanics. In classical mechanics, e.g., one expresses the Lagrangian C in terms of of generalized coordinates q(x,t) and their temporal derivatives q(x,t), and obtains the equations of motion from extremizing the action functional 4[g] = J C q, q t)dt. The resulting equations of motion are the well-known Euler-Lagrange equations 0 = = fy — > which are a special case of Eq. (14). [Pg.10]

Lagrangian function (L) - A function used in classical mechanics, defined as the kinetic energy minus the potential energy for a system of particles. [Pg.108]

A Legendre transformation also connects the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions in classical mechanics. For a particle moving in one dimension, the Lagrangian L = T—V can be written as... [Pg.197]

** Classical mechanics Lagrangian formalism **

** Lagrangian equation classical mechanics **

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