Alatiqi presented (I EC Process Design Dev. 1986, Vol. 25, p. 762) the transfer functions for a 4 X 4 multivariable complex distillation column with sidestream stripper for separating a ternary mixture into three products. There are four controlled variables purities of the three product streams (jCj, x, and Xjij) and a temperature difference AT to rninirnize energy consumptiou There are four manipulated variables reflux R, heat input to the reboiler, heat input to the stripper reboiler Qg, and flow rate of feed to the stripper Lj. The 4x4 matrix of openloop transfer functions relating controlled and manipulated variables is ... [Pg.611]

As eq. (24) shows, the 4x4 matrix B has been reduced by this basis transformation into the direct sum... [Pg.212]

The Usadel equation is a nonlinear equation for the 4x4 matrix Green s function [15]. The Usadel equation is complemented by the boundary conditions at the S/F interface [12]... [Pg.233]

The Pauli matrices a (r) operate in the Nambu (Keldysh) space. The counting current I x) is to be found from the quantum kinetic equations [15] for the 4x4 matrix Keldysh-Green function G in the mesoscopic normal region of the interferometer confined between the reservoirs,... [Pg.243]

Implementation of the above screening principle requires three main parts a thermosensitive IR camera capable of recording heat emissions of the catalysts contained in the reactor system, the reactor itself as central part and an xyz-posi-tionable sampling capillary, connected to the second analytical tool (MS or GC, etc.) (Fig. 2.4). To simplify matters, a reactor with a 4x4 matrix of reaction channels is illustrated here, the actual reactor formats used at hte Aktiengesellschaft are 96- and 192-fold reactor systems based on the 8xl2-MTP (micro-titer plate) matrix. [Pg.32]

One can also transform symmetry operators whenever the coordinate system itself gets changed, as for instance in selecting an alternate setting for a space group. Then one must use a similarity transformation in the old system let the 4x4 symmetry operator be denoted by Q3, and in the new system as Qy let the coordinate system transformation be represented by the 4x4 matrix S, whose inverse matrix is S-1 then the similarity transformation yields ... [Pg.441]

The quantities (a, =x,y, z, p) are the elements of the matrix which is the inverse of the 4x4 matrix p is the determinant of the matrix [Paj ]-We have so far considered only the kinetic energy expression. We must also consider the potential energy expression V, which can be expanded for each value of p as a Taylor series in the normal coordinates Q ... [Pg.69]

The SO vibronic matrix (33), which does not depend on the nuclear geometry (within first order in q), can be transformed to diagonal form by a unitary 4x4 matrix S [29], yielding... [Pg.84]

matrix operators composed from the Pauli spin matrices, c = 137.037 is the speed of light in a.u. and K(r) is an approximation to the potential seen... [Pg.72]

Figure 13.10 shows the chromatogram calculated for the same set of experimental conditions as used for Figure 13.9, except for the concentrations of the analytes, which are Cq,i = Cq,2 = 0.01 M, instead of 0.0001 M. The matrix f (Eq. 13.11a) of this system is a 4x4 matrix and the mobile phase concentration is represented by a 2 X1 vector. The injection of the vacancy pulse causes two perturbations, one for each component. Each of these perturbations involves two peaks. [Pg.624]

Figure 6b shows comparison of calculated mode effective index using the analytic 4x4 matrix approach [18, 39] and using the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) [40]. The agreement is excellent, hence confirming that it is possible to use the 4 x 4 matrix approach for the design of GMR structures. [Pg.88]

Figure 15.8. Conversion of CO to C02 at room temperature measured in the 16-well parallel reactor. Catalysts are arranged in a 4x4 matrix 1 % CO in air. gas hourly space velocity 25OCX) ml h"1 gcat. |

Here the bar denotes a complex conjugation and Uc is a unitary 4x4 matrix with the following property ... [Pg.50]

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