The vapor-liquid equilibrium of the binary mixture is well fitted by Van Laar s equations (228). It was determined from 100 to 760 mm Hg. and the experimental data was correlated by the Antoine equation (289, 290), with P in mm Hg and t in °C [Pg.85]

Figure 4.3 Vapor-liquid equilibrium for a binary mixture of benzene and toluene at a pressure of 1 atm. (From Smith R and Jobson M, 2000, Distillation, Encyclopedia of Separation Science, Academic Press reproduced by permission). |

Estimation of Vapor Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems... [Pg.251]

The precise vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of binary mixtures like alcohol-alcohol are important to design many chemical processes and separation operations. The VLE investigations of binary systems have been the subject of much interest in recent years[l-9]. [Pg.249]

Subroutine VLDTA2. VLDTA2 loads the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data to be correlated. If the data are in units other than those used internally, the correct conversions are made here. This subroutine also reads the estimated standard deviations for the measured variables and the initial parameter estimates. All input data are printed for verification. [Pg.217]

Compilation of data for binary mixtures reports some vapor-liquid equilibrium data as well as other properties such as density and viscosity. [Pg.12]

VPLQFT is a computer program for correlating binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at low to moderate pressures. For such binary mixtures, the truncated virial equation of state is used to correct for vapor-phase nonidealities, except for mixtures containing organic acids where the "chemical" theory is used. The Hayden-0 Connell (1975) correlation gives either the second virial coefficients or the dimerization equilibrium constants, as required. [Pg.211]

Consider first, a binary mixture of two Components A and B the vapor-liquid equilibrium exhibits only a moderate deviation from ideality, as represented in Figure 4.4a. In this case, as pure A boils at a lower temperature than pure B in the temperature-composition [Pg.66]

Schwartzentruber J., F. Galivel-Solastiuk and H. Renon, "Representation of the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of the Ternary System Carbon Dioxide-Propane-Methanol and its Binaries with a Cubic Equation of State. A new Mixing Rule", Fluid Phase Equilibria, 38,217-226 (1987). [Pg.400]

Separation systems include in their mathematical models various vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) correlations that are specific to the binary or multicomponent system of interest. Such correlations are usually obtained by fitting VLE data by least squares. The nature of the data can depend on the level of sophistication of the experimental work. In some cases it is only feasible to measure the total pressure of a system as a function of the liquid phase mole fraction (no vapor phase mole fraction data are available). [Pg.451]

UNIQUAC Binary Parameters for Noncondensable Components with Condensable Components. Parameters Obtained from Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data in the Dilute Region [Pg.209]

Figure 8-2 illustrates a typical normal volatility vapor-liquid equilibrium curve for a particular component of interest in a distillation separation, usually for the more volatile of the binary mixture, or the one where separation is important in a multicomponent mixture. [Pg.2]

Horstmann, S., Wilken, M., Fischer, K., Gmehling, J. (2004) Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium and excess enthalpy data for the binary systems propylene oxide + 2-methylpentane and difluoromethane (R32) + pentafluoroethane (R125). J. Chem. Eng. Data 49,1504-1507. [Pg.399]

A binary mixture is to be separated by distillation into relatively pure products. Where in the distillation column is the vapor-liquid equilibrium data required at the highest accuracy [Pg.178]

For systems of type II, if the mutual binary solubility (LLE) data are known for the two partially miscible pairs, and if reasonable vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are known for the miscible pair, it is relatively simple to predict the ternary equilibria. For systems of type I, which has a plait point, reliable calculations are much more difficult. However, sometimes useful quantitative predictions can be obtained for type I systems with binary data alone provided that [Pg.63]

A distillation calculation is to be performed on a multicomponent mixture. The vapor-liquid equilibrium for this mixture is likely to exhibit significant departures from ideality, but a complete set of binary interaction parameters is not available. What factors would you consider in assessing whether the missing interaction parameters are likely to have an important effect on the calculations [Pg.178]

A wide variety of data for mean ionic activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, vapor pressure depression, and vapor-liquid equilibrium of binary and ternary electrolyte systems have been correlated successfully by the local composition model. Some results are shown in Table 1 to Table 10 and Figure 3 to Figure 7. In each case, the chemical equilibrium between the species has been ignored. That is, complete dissociation of strong electrolytes has been assumed. This assumption is not required by the local composition model but has been made here in order to simplify the systems treated. [Pg.75]

Traditionally, the binary interaction parameters such as the ka, kb, k, ki in the Trebble-Bishnoi EoS have been estimated from the regression of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data. It is assumed that a set of N experiments have been performed and that at each of these experiments, four state variables were measured. These variables are the temperature (T), pressure (P), liquid (x) and vapor (y) phase mole fractions of one of the components. The measurements of these variables are related to the "true" but unknown values of the state variables by the equations given next [Pg.231]

Propylene oxide is a colorless, low hoiling (34.2°C) liquid. Table 1 lists general physical properties Table 2 provides equations for temperature variation on some thermodynamic functions. Vapor—liquid equilibrium data for binary mixtures of propylene oxide and other chemicals of commercial importance ate available. References for binary mixtures include 1,2-propanediol (14), water (7,8,15), 1,2-dichloropropane [78-87-5] (16), 2-propanol [67-63-0] (17), 2-methyl-2-pentene [625-27-4] (18), methyl formate [107-31-3] (19), acetaldehyde [75-07-0] (17), methanol [67-56-1] (20), ptopanal [123-38-6] (16), 1-phenylethanol [60-12-8] (21), and / /f-butanol [75-65-0] (22,23). [Pg.133]

Another type of ternary electrolyte system consists of two solvents and one salt, such as methanol-water-NaBr. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of such mixed solvent electrolyte systems has never been studied with a thermodynamic model that takes into account the presence of salts explicitly. However, it should be recognized that the interaction parameters of solvent-salt binary systems are functions of the mixed solvent dielectric constant since the ion-molecular electrostatic interaction energies, gma and gmc, depend on the reciprocal of the dielectric constant of the solvent (Robinson and Stokes, (13)). Pure component parameters, such as gmm and gca, are not functions of dielectric constant. Results of data correlation on vapor-liquid equilibrium of methanol-water-NaBr and methanol-water-LiCl at 298.15°K are shown in Tables 9 and 10. [Pg.85]

Multicomponent distillations are more complicated than binary systems due primarily to the actual or potential involvement or interaction of one or more components of the multicomponent system on other components of the mixture. These interactions may be in the form of vapor-liquid equilibriums such as azeotrope formation, or chemical reaction, etc., any of which may affect the activity relations, and hence deviations from ideal relationships. For example, some systems are known to have two azeotrope combinations in the distillation column. Sometimes these, one or all, can be broken or changed in the vapor pressure relationships by addition of a third chemical or hydrocarbon. [Pg.68]

In Equation (24), a is the estimated standard deviation for each of the measured variables, i.e. pressure, temperature, and liquid-phase and vapor-phase compositions. The values assigned to a determine the relative weighting between the tieline data and the vapor-liquid equilibrium data this weighting determines how well the ternary system is represented. This weighting depends first, on the estimated accuracy of the ternary data, relative to that of the binary vapor-liquid data and second, on how remote the temperature of the binary data is from that of the ternary data and finally, on how important in a design the liquid-liquid equilibria are relative to the vapor-liquid equilibria. Typical values which we use in data reduction are Op = 1 mm Hg, = 0.05°C, = 0.001, and = 0.003 [Pg.68]

Figure 15 shows results for a difficult type I system methanol-n-heptane-benzene. In this example, the two-phase region is extremely small. The dashed line (a) shows predictions using the original UNIQUAC equation with q = q. This form of the UNIQUAC equation does not adequately fit the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the methanol-benzene system and therefore the ternary predictions are grossly in error. The ternary prediction is much improved with the modified UNIQUAC equation (b) since this equation fits the methanol-benzene system much better. Further improvement (c) is obtained when a few ternary data are used to fix the binary parameters. [Pg.66]

In contrast to the Gibbs ensemble discussed later in this chapter, a number of simulations are required per coexistence point, but the number can be quite small, especially for vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations away from the critical point. For example, for a one-component system near the triple point, the density of the dense liquid can be obtained from a single NPT simulation at zero pressure. The chemical potential of the liquid, in turn, determines the density of the (near-ideal) vapor phase so that only one simulation is required. The method has been extended to mixtures [12, 13]. Significantly lower statistical uncertainties were obtained in [13] compared to earlier Gibbs ensemble calculations of the same Lennard-Jones binary mixtures, but the NPT + test particle method calculations were based on longer simulations. [Pg.356]

Several activity coefficient models are available for industrial use. They are presented extensively in the thermodynamics literature (Prausnitz et al., 1986). Here we will give the equations for the activity coefficients of each component in a binary mixture. These equations can be used to regress binary parameters from binary experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data. [Pg.275]

These models are semiempirical and are based on the concept that intermolecular forces will cause nonrandom arrangement of molecules in the mixture. The models account for the arrangement of molecules of different sizes and the preferred orientation of molecules. In each case, the models are fitted to experimental binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data. This gives binary interaction parameters that can be used to predict multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium. In the case of the UNIQUAC equation, if experimentally determined vapor-liquid equilibrium data are not available, the Universal Quasi-chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficients (UNIFAC) method can be used to estimate UNIQUAC parameters from the molecular structures of the components in the mixture3. [Pg.62]

To illustrate the criterion for parameter estimation, let 1, 2, and 3 represent the three components in a mixture. Components 1 and 2 are only partially miscible components 1 and 3, as well as components 2 and 3 are totally miscible. The two binary parameters for the 1-2 binary are determined from mutual-solubility data and remain fixed. Initial estimates of the four binary parameters for the two completely miscible binaries, 1-3 and 2-3, are determined from sets of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data. The final values of these parameters are then obtained by fitting both sets of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data simultaneously with the limited ternary tie-line data. [Pg.67]

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