The force-field method involves the other part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, that is the positioning of the nuclei. The electronic system is not considered explicitly, but its effects are of course taken into account indirectly. This method is often referred to as a classical approach, not because the equations and parameters are derived from classical mechanics, but rather because it is assumed that a set of equations exist which are of the form of the classical equations of motion. The problem from this point of view is one of establishing just which equations are necessary, and determining the numerical values for the constants which appear in the equations. In general there is no limit as to what functions may be chosen or what parameters arc to be used, except that the force-field must duplicate the experimental data. [Pg.8]

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