The basic underlying assumption for the mathematical derivation of chi square is that a random sample was selected from a normal distribution with variance G. When the population is not normal but skewed, square probabihties could be substantially in error. [Pg.493]

Decision-making may be undertaken by an individual under assumptions of certainty, risk, or uncertainty (partial or complete ignorance) on the states of Nature. [Pg.315]

Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics attempts to define the relationship between dmg concentration and therapeutic response. The underlying assumption is that response is proportional to dmg concentration at the site of action. This concentration is dependent on many [Pg.270]

These five processes have been defined independently of the ligand partition. They are visualized as properties of the skeleton symmetry only. In the coset and double coset formulations of stereoisomerization this idea is expressed in a precise mathematical form. The underlying assumption is that the presence of different ligands does not distort the skeleton geometry. It is certainly possible to find chemical situations where this is reasonably correct. [Pg.48]

In order to cope with a complex environment, people make extensive use of rules or assumptions. This rule based mode of operation is normally very efficient. However, errors will arise when the underlying assumptions required by the rules are not fulfilled. Chapter 2 discusses the causes of these rule based errors in detail. [Pg.27]

Deciphering the code. The language of computational chemistry is littered with acronyms, what do these abbreviations stand for in terms of underlying assumptions and approximations [Pg.441]

While HiickeTs 4n + 2 rule applies only to monocyclic systems, HMO flieory is applicable to many other systems. HMO calculations of fused-ring systems are carried out in much the same way as for monocyclic species and provide energy levels and atomic coefficients for the systems. The incorporation of heteroatoms is also possible. Because of the underlying assumption of orthogonality of the a and n systems of electrons, HMO dieory is restricted to planar molecules. [Pg.36]

The main challenge to overcome is obtaining the necessary numbers to input to such models. There is a natural distrust of rubbish in, rubbish out, and the teams used to working with hard data may be reluctant to express their underlying assumptions about goals, trade-offs, and business [Pg.267]

The TSE model of causation that accidents are primarily due to individually controllable unsafe acts is unlikely to be modified over time. This is because very little evidence on the background and conditions which led up to an accident will be collected. The data collection strategy is therefore likely to remain static, since the data collected wiU, by definition, not contradict the underlying assumptions. [Pg.256]

As mentioned, the data obtained by this method are expressed as cumulative size distribution curves. Since the computations assume Stokes law for spherical particles, the plotted curves give the distribution of spherical particles which would behave like the actual sample with respect to this experiment. For this reason, the sizes on the distribution curves should be labelled Stokes Equivalent Diameter . Because of the underlying assumptions and the above interpretation of the results, it is clear that the repeatability of this method has more meaning than accuracy of comparison with results of other methods [Pg.516]

For each of the 36 bus sections tliat had not already failed, the Weibull distribution was used to detennine tlie probability of failure before tlie next outage. Under assumption (a), tliis probability is P(T < 3301T > 209) i.e., tlie conditional probability of failure before 330 days, given tliat tlie bus section lias survived 209 days. Under assumption (b), tlie corresponding probability is P(T < 330 T > 230). For part (b), tlie estimates of the Weibull distribution parameters used in part (a) were modified to take into consideration tlie absence of failures for 3 additional weeks. [Pg.627]

Vibrational broadening in [162] was taken into account under the conventional assumption that contributions of vibrational dephasing and rotational relaxation to contour width are additive as in Eq. (3.49). This approximation provides the largest error at low densities, when the contour is significantly asymmetric and the perturbation theory does not work. In the frame of impact theory these relaxation processes may be separated more correctly under assumption of their statistical independence. Inclusion of dephasing causes appearance of a factor [Pg.123]

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