State, orientation, wave packet coherence Uncertainty principle and coherence Single-molecule, not ensemble, trajectory Dynamics, not kinetics Complex systems, robustness of phenomena... [Pg.9]

The approaches based on trajectory dynamics and discrete cells are fundamentally equivalent, providing a valuable cross-check. Excellent agreement between the results of these models in various scenarios testifies to their accuracy (below). These simulations and mathematical derivations have been applied to explore the dependence of FAIMS performance on instrumental parameters that we shall now review. [Pg.210]

Blais NC, Tmhlar DG (1973) Monte carlo trajectories dynamics of the reaction F -F D2 on a semiempirical valencebond potential energy surface. J Chem Phys 58(3) 1090... [Pg.109]

The thermodynamic paradox might be resolved because (1) the time-symmetric behaviour of the trajectory dynamics contributes nothing more to the global evolution of the statistical mechanical system than the necessary conditions for the existence of such a system and (2) in a large Poincare system trajectories exhibit Brownian motion, and correlation dynamics dominate the macroscopic dynamics. Thermodynamics is then an emergent global phenomenon possessing a temporal direction. [Bishop, 2004, p. 25]... [Pg.173]

N. C. Blais and D. G. Truhlar, Monte Carlo trajectories Dynamics of the reaction F 4- D2 on a semiempirical valence-bond potential energy surface, J. Chem. Phys. 58 1090 (1973). [Pg.328]

It is sometimes very usefiil to look at a trajectory such as the synnnetric or antisynnnetric stretch of figure Al.2.5 and figure A1.2.6 not in the physical spatial coordinates (r. . r y), but in the phase space of Hamiltonian mechanics [16, 29], which in addition to the coordinates (r. . r ) also has as additional coordinates the set of conjugate momenta. . pj. ). In phase space, a one-diniensional trajectory such as the aiitisymmetric stretch again appears as a one-diniensional curve, but now the curve closes on itself Such a trajectory is referred to in nonlinear dynamics as a periodic orbit [29]. One says that the aihiamionic nonnal modes of Moser and Weinstein are stable periodic orbits. [Pg.61]

If we wish to know the number of (VpV)-collisions that actually take place in this small time interval, we need to know exactly where each particle is located and then follow the motion of all the particles from time tto time t+ bt. In fact, this is what is done in computer simulated molecular dynamics. We wish to avoid this exact specification of the particle trajectories, and instead carry out a plausible argument for the computation of r To do this, Boltzmann made the following assumption, called the Stosszahlansatz, which we encountered already in the calculation of the mean free path ... [Pg.678]

Montgomery J A Jr, Chandler D and Berne B J 1979 Trajectory analysis of a kinetic theory for isomerization dynamics in condensed phases J. Chem. Phys. 70 4056... [Pg.896]

Hase W L (ed) 1998 Comparisons of Classical and Quantum Dynamics (Adv. in Classical Trajectory Methods III) (Greenwich, CT JAI Press)... [Pg.1003]

The first classical trajectory study of iinimoleciilar decomposition and intramolecular motion for realistic anhannonic molecular Hamiltonians was perfonned by Bunker [12,13], Both intrinsic RRKM and non-RRKM dynamics was observed in these studies. Since this pioneering work, there have been numerous additional studies [9,k7,30,M,M, ai d from which two distinct types of intramolecular motion, chaotic and quasiperiodic [14], have been identified. Both are depicted in figure A3,12,7. Chaotic vibrational motion is not regular as predicted by tire nonnal-mode model and, instead, there is energy transfer between the modes. If all the modes of the molecule participate in the chaotic motion and energy flow is sufficiently rapid, an initial microcanonical ensemble is maintained as the molecule dissociates and RRKM behaviour is observed [9], For non-random excitation initial apparent non-RRKM behaviour is observed, but at longer times a microcanonical ensemble of states is fonned and the probability of decomposition becomes that of RRKM theory. [Pg.1026]

Apparent non-RRKM behaviour occurs when the molecule is excited non-randomly and there is an initial non-RRKM decomposition before IVR fomis a microcanonical ensemble (see section A3.12.2). Reaction patliways, which have non-competitive RRKM rates, may be promoted in this way. Classical trajectory simulations were used in early studies of apparent non-RRKM dynamics [113.114]. [Pg.1035]

W L Hase (ed) 1992 Advances in Classical Trajectory Methods. 1. Intramolecular and Nonlinear Dynamics (London JAI)... [Pg.1041]

The classical counterpart of resonances is periodic orbits [91, 95, 96, 97 and 98]. For example, a purely classical study of the H+H2 collinear potential surface reveals that near the transition state for the H+H2 H2+H reaction there are several trajectories (in R and r) that are periodic. These trajectories are not stable but they nevertheless affect strongly tire quantum dynamics. A study of tlie resonances in H+H2 scattering as well as many other triatomic systems (see, e.g., [99]) reveals that the scattering peaks are closely related to tlie frequencies of the periodic orbits and the resonance wavefiinctions are large in the regions of space where the periodic orbits reside. [Pg.2308]

Finally, semi-classical approaches to non-adiabatic dynamics have also been fomuilated and siiccessfLilly applied [167. 181]. In an especially transparent version of these approaches [167], one employs a mathematical trick which converts the non-adiabatic surfaces to a set of coupled oscillators the number of oscillators is the same as the number of electronic states. This mediod is also quite accurate, except drat the number of required trajectories grows with time, as in any semi-classical approach. [Pg.2320]

It is convenient to analyse tliese rate equations from a dynamical systems point of view similar to tliat used in classical mechanics where one follows tire trajectories of particles in phase space. For tire chemical rate law (C3.6.2) tire phase space , conventionally denoted by F, is -dimensional and tire chemical concentrations, CpC2,- are taken as ortliogonal coordinates of F, ratlier tlian tire particle positions and velocities used as tire coordinates in mechanics. In analogy to classical mechanical systems, as tire concentrations evolve in time tliey will trace out a trajectory in F. Since tire velocity functions in tire system of ODEs (C3.6.2) do not depend explicitly on time, a given initial condition in F will always produce tire same trajectory. The vector R of velocity functions in (C3.6.2) defines a phase-space (or trajectory) flow and in it is often convenient to tliink of tliese ODEs as describing tire motion of a fluid in F with velocity field/ (c p). [Pg.3055]

The END trajectories for the simultaneous dynamics of classical nuclei and quantum electrons will yield deflection functions. For collision processes with nonspherical targets and projectiles, one obtains one deflection function per orientation, which in turn yields the semiclassical phase shift and thus the scattering amplitude and the semiclassical differential cross-section... [Pg.236]

One reason that the symmetric stretch is favored over the asymmetric one might be the overall process, which is electron transfer. This means that most of the END trajectories show a nonvanishing probability for electron transfer and as a result the dominant forces try to open the bond angle during the collision toward a linear structure of HjO. In this way, the totally symmetric bending mode is dynamically promoted, which couples to the symmetric stretch, but not to the asymmetric one. [Pg.244]

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