The molecular and liquid properties of water have been subjects of intensive research in the field of molecular science. Most theoretical approaches, including molecular simulation and integral equation methods, have relied on the effective potential, which was determined empirically or semiempirically with the aid of ab initio MO calculations for isolated molecules. The potential parameters so determined from the ab initio MO in vacuum should have been readjusted so as to reproduce experimental observables in solutions. An obvious problem in such a way of determining molecular parameters is that it requires the reevaluation of the parameters whenever the thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure are changed, because the effective potentials are state properties. [Pg.422]

However, before proceeding with the description of simulation data, we would like to comment the theoretical background. Similarly to the previous example, in order to obtain the pair correlation function of matrix spheres we solve the common Ornstein-Zernike equation complemented by the PY closure. Next, we would like to consider the adsorption of a hard sphere fluid in a microporous environment provided by a disordered matrix of permeable species. The fluid to be adsorbed is considered at density pj = pj-Of. The equilibrium between an adsorbed fluid and its bulk counterpart (i.e., in the absence of the matrix) occurs at constant chemical potential. However, in the theoretical procedure we need to choose the value for the fluid density first, and calculate the chemical potential afterwards. The ROZ equations, (22) and (23), are applied to decribe the fluid-matrix and fluid-fluid correlations. These correlations are considered by using the PY closure, such that the ROZ equations take the Madden-Glandt form as in the previous example. The structural properties in terms of the pair correlation functions (the fluid-matrix function is of special interest for models with permeabihty) cannot represent the only issue to investigate. Moreover, to perform comparisons of the structure under different conditions we need to calculate the adsorption isotherms pf jSpf). The chemical potential of a [Pg.313]

The superionic phase has been explored with more extensive CPMD simulations.69 Calculated power spectra (i.e., the vibrational density of states or VDOS) have been compared with measured experimental Raman spectra68 at pressures up to 55 GPa and temperatures of 1500 K. The agreement between theory and experiment was very good. In particular, weakening and broadening of the OH stretch mode at 55 GPa was found both theoretically and experimentally. [Pg.173]

As in Example BSTILL, a column containing four theoretical plates and reboiler is assumed, together with constant volume conditions in the reflux drum. The liquid behaviour is, however, non-ideal for this water-methanol system. The objective of this example is to show the need for iterative calculations required for bubble point calculations in non-ideal distillation systems, and how this can be achieved with the use of simulation languages. [Pg.610]

Small metal clusters are also of interest because of their importance in catalysis. Despite the fact that small clusters should consist of mostly surface atoms, measurement of the photon ionization threshold for Hg clusters suggest that a transition from van der Waals to metallic properties occurs in the range of 20-70 atoms per cluster [88] and near-bulk magnetic properties are expected for Ni, Pd, and Pt clusters of only 13 atoms [89] Theoretical calculations on Sin and other semiconductors predict that the stmcture reflects the bulk lattice for 1000 atoms but the bulk electronic wave functions are not obtained [90]. Bartell and co-workers [91] study beams of molecular clusters with electron dirfraction and molecular dynamics simulations and find new phases not observed in the bulk. Bulk models appear to be valid for their clusters of several thousand atoms (see Section IX-3). [Pg.270]

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