It is possible to undertake theoretical calculations to ascertain the amount of energy required for the operation and to compare this with the actual consumption. To do this requires the knowledge of a large number of parameters but it can be undertaken, especially if an energy management system is installed. [Pg.461]

The extent of the agreement of the theoretical calculations with the experiments is somewhat unexpected since MSA is an approximate theory and the underlying model is rough. In particular, water is not a system of dipolar hard spheres.281 However, the good agreement is an indication of the utility of recent advances in the application of statistical mechanics to the study of the electric dipole layer at metal electrodes. [Pg.55]

X-Ray structural data and recent high level theoretical calculations confirm that this neutral, diamagnetic dithiadiazole is an aromatic six k-electron ring system. The gas-phase infra-red and photoelectron spectra of S2N2CO have also been reported. [Pg.223]

A basis set is the mathematical description of the orbitals within a system (which in turn combine to approximate the total electronic wavefunction) used to perform the theoretical calculation. Larger basis sets more accurately approximate the orbitals by imposing fewer restrictions on the locations of the electrons in space. In the true quantum mechanical picture, electrons have a finite probability of existing anywhere in space this limit corresponds to the infinite basis set expansion in the chart we looked at previously. [Pg.97]

Fig. 126.—The ternary system consisting of cyclohexane and two polystyrene fractions (x2 — 770 and 0 3 = 11,000) at 28.2°C. Solid lines are drawn through the experimental points results of theoretical calculation are shown by the dotted lines. (Shultz and Flory.3) |

As mentioned, we also carried out IR studies (a fast vibrational spectroscopy) early in our work on carbocations. In our studies of the norbornyl cation we obtained Raman spectra as well, although at the time it was not possible to theoretically calculate the spectra. Comparison with model compounds (the 2-norbornyl system and nortri-cyclane, respectively) indicated the symmetrical, bridged nature of the ion. In recent years, Sunko and Schleyer were able, using the since-developed Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) method, to obtain the spectrum of the norbornyl cation and to compare it with the theoretically calculated one. Again, it was rewarding that their data were in excellent accord with our earlier work. [Pg.143]

In the following sections structure, thermodynamic aspects, theoretical calculations, spectroscopic properties, reactions, syntheses, and more briefly, utilization of the representatives of these ring systems are discussed. [Pg.177]

Hcuts et a .,64 while not disputing that penultimate units might influence the activation energies, proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations that penultimate unit effects of the magnitude seen in Ihe S-AN and other systems (i.e. 2-5 fold) can also be explained by variations in the entropy of activation for the process. They also proposed that this effect would mainly influence rate rather than specificity. [Pg.350]

This result indicates that in strictly theoretical calculations, the f functions may almost as well be omitted unless they can be optimized for the London energy itself. For the purpose of semi-empirical calculations, however, the /A functions from the polarizability must be retained for the substitution in the London energy. The error for hydrogen atoms is only about 4 per cent, however, and there does not appear to be any reason that it would increase greatly in more complex systems. [Pg.65]

The first empirical and qualitative approach to the electronic structure of thiazole appeared in 1931 in a paper entitled Aspects of the chemistry of the thiazole group (115). In this historical review. Hunter showed the technical importance of the group, especially of the benzothiazole derivatives, and correlated the observed reactivity with the mobility of the electronic system. In 1943, Jensen et al. (116) explained the low value observed for the dipole moment of thiazole (1.64D in benzene) by the small contribution of the polar-limiting structures and thus by an essentially dienic character of the v system of thiazole. The first theoretical calculation of the electronic structure of thiazole. benzothiazole, and their methyl derivatives was performed by Pullman and Metzger using the Huckel method (5, 6, 8). [Pg.26]

The discovery of a significant number of hypercoordinate carboca-tions ( nonclassical ions), initially based on solvolytic studies and subsequently as observable, stable ions in superacidic media as well as on theoretical calculations, showed that carbon hypercoordination is a general phenomenon in electron-deficient hydrocarbon systems. Some characteristic nonclassical carbocations are the following. [Pg.159]

Neutralizing capacity is not the only measure of a required amine feed rate. Once all acidic characteristics have been neutralized, amine basicity becomes the important issue because this raises the pH above the neutralization point, to a more stable and sustainable level. Consequently, in practice we are concerned with the level of amine necessary to raise the condensate pH to a noncorrosive level. This practical amine requirement is difficult to obtain from theoretical calculations because it must take account of the amine volatility, DR, and the boiler system amine recycling factor (as well as temperature). As noted earlier, the basicity of an amine has little or no relationship to its volatility or DR, so that reliable field results are probably a more important guide in assessing the suitability of an amine product than suppliers tables. [Pg.523]

Having considered how solvents can affect the reactivities of molecules in solution, let us consider some of the special features that arise in the gas phase, where solvation effects are totally eliminated. Although the majority of organic preparative reactions and mechanistic studies have been conducted in solution, some important reactions are carried out in the gas phase. Also, because most theoretical calculations do not treat solvent effects, experimental data from the gas phase are the most appropriate basis for comparison with theoretical results. Frequently, quite different trends in substituent effects are seen when systems in the gas phase are compared to similar systems in solution. [Pg.243]

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