The behavior of the third normal mode, v3, is different. While E and o v leave it unchanged, both C2 and crv bring it into its negative self [Pg.220]

Looking at the C2v character table, we can say that v, and v2 belong to the totally symmetric irreducible representation A, and v3 belongs to52. [Pg.221]

It was easy to determine the symmetry of the normal modes of the water molecule because we already knew their forms. Can the symmetry of the normal modes of a molecule be determined without any previous knowledge of the actual forms of the normal modes The answer is fortunately yes. From the symmetry group of the molecule the symmetry species of the normal modes can be determined without any additional information. [Pg.221]

the set of Cartesian displacement vectors is used as a basis for the representation of the point group. As discussed in Chapter 4, the vectors connected with atoms that change their position during an operation will not contribute to the character and thus they can be ignored. [Pg.221]

It was easy to determine the symmetry of the normal modes of the water molecule because we already knew their forms. Can the symmetry of the [Pg.210]

Atoms belong to the full rotation symmetry group this makes their symmetry analysis the most complex to treat. [Pg.180]

Along "Reaction Paths", Orbitals Can be Connected One-to-One According to Their Symmetries and Energies. This is the Origin of the Woodward-Hoffmann Rules I. Reduction in Symmetry... [Pg.184]

Their symmetry labels can be obtained by vector coupling (see Appendix G) the spin and orbital angular momenta of the two subsystems. The orbital angular momentum coupling... [Pg.258]

Finally, for linear molecules in Z states, the wavefunctions can be labeled by one additional quantum number that relates to their symmetry under reflection of all electrons through a ay plane passing through the molecule s Coo axis. If F is even, a + sign is appended as a superscript to the term symbol if F is odd, a - sign is added. [Pg.262]

Along "reactionpaths", configurations can be connected one-to-one according to their symmetries and energies. This is another part of the Woodward-Hoffmann rules... [Pg.290]

We could take any set of functions as a basis for a group representation. Commonly used sets include coordinates (x,y,z) located on the atoms of a polyatomic molecule (their symmetry treatment is equivalent to that involved in treating a set of p... [Pg.590]

All bonds between equal atoms are given zero values. Because of their symmetry, methane and ethane molecules are nonpolar. The principle of bond moments thus requires that the CH3 group moment equal one H—C moment. Hence the substitution of any aliphatic H by CH3 does not alter the dipole moment, and all saturated hydrocarbons have zero moments as long as the tetrahedral angles are maintained. [Pg.328]

The 2p and 2py AOs on A cannot combine with either l +l or l —on the hydrogen atoms because their symmetry does not allow it. They remain as doubly degenerate AOs on A classified as 1ti in D f. ... [Pg.263]

An important issue in the thermodynamics of confined fluids concerns their symmetry which is lower than that of a corresponding homogeneous bulk phase because of the presence of the substrate and its inherent atomic structure [52]. The substrate may also be nonplanar (see Sec. IV C) or may consist of more than one chemical species so that it is heterogeneous on a nanoscopic length scale (see Sec. VB 3). The reduced symmetry of the confined phase led us to replace the usual compressional-work term —Pbuik F in the bulk analogue of Eq. (2) by individual stresses and strains. The appearance of shear contributions also reflects the reduced symmetry of confined phases. [Pg.11]

Run a preliminary UHF/ST0-3G Pop=NahjralOrbi1al job on triplet acrolein to generate and examine the starting orbitals and their symmetries. Select those that will make up the active space you will want to create an active... [Pg.228]

Data for the reaction of nitrous acid with hydrogen peroxide1 follow Eq. (4-22), with kf = 3.76 s"1 and ks = 0.0854 s"1. We now show that either kf or ks may be k or k2. That is, an absorbance reading that rapidly rises and slowly declines does not necessarily imply the first step is fast and the second slow. Inspection of the expression for [P]f, Eq. (4-8), and that for Yt, Eq. (4-18), shows their symmetry upon interchange of A i and k2. Absent other information, the two rate constants cannot be assigned. [Pg.75]

Figure 8a shows how the SACs for the 02 group can be formed, with their symmetry labels. Again, two sp hybrids have been constructed first. Figure 8b shows the MOs of... [Pg.10]

The subsets of d orbitals in Fig. 3-4 may also be labelled according to their symmetry properties. The d ildxi y2 pair are labelled and the d yldxMyz trio as t2g. These are group-theoretical symbols describing how these functions transform under various symmetry operations. For our purposes, it is sufficient merely to recognize that the letters a ox b describe orbitally i.e. spatially) singly degenerate species, e refers to an orbital doublet and t to an orbital triplet. Lower case letters are used for one-electron wavefunctions (i.e. orbitals). The g subscript refers to the behaviour of... [Pg.30]

Because of the small difference between the electronegativities of carbon and hydrogen, alkanes have very small dipole moments, so small that they are difficult to measure. For example, the dipole moment of isobutane is 0.132 and that of propane is 0.085 Of course, methane and ethane, because of their symmetry, have no dipole moments. Few organic molecules have dipole moments greater than 7 D. [Pg.16]

Since then, the vibrational spectrum of Ss has been the subject of several studies (Raman [79, 95-100], infrared [101, 102]). However, because of the large number of vibrations in the crystal it is obvious that a full assignment would only be successful if an oriented single-crystal is studied at different polarizations in order to deconvolute the crystal components with respect to their symmetry. Polarized Raman spectra of samples at about 300 K have been reported by Ozin [103] and by Arthur and Mackenzie [104]. In Figs. 2 and 3 examples of polarized Raman and FTIR spectra of a-Ss at room temperature are shown. If the sample is exposed to low temperatures the band-widths can enormously be reduced (from several wavenumbers down to less than 0.1-1 cm ) permitting further improvements in the assignment. [Pg.47]

Most of the many modes of a-Ss have been assigned to their symmetry class. However, some strong infrared absorptions (V4 240 cm V5 470 cm ) and weak Raman lines (Vn 250 cm ) as well as signals originating from accidental degeneracies (e.g., Vi, V5, and Vy at around 475 cm ) were difficult to assign. [Pg.57]

Fig. 2. The energy contours for two GB(4.4, 20.0, 1, 1) molecules confined to a plane with their symmetry axes parallel. The contours are separated by 0.25 and range from 0 to —2.25... |

The wealth of information accessible by analyzing this type of PFG NMR data is reflected in Figure 3.1.1. This shows a representation of the (smoothed) propagators for ethane in zeolites NaCaA (a special type of nanoporous crystallite) at two different temperatures and for two different crystal sizes. Owing to their symmetry in space, it is sufficient to reproduce only one half of the propagators. In fact,... [Pg.232]

Two structures are homeotypic if they are similar, but fail to fulfill the aforementioned conditions for isotypism because of different symmetry, because corresponding atomic positions are occupied by several different kinds of atoms (substitution derivatives) or because the geometric conditions differ (different axes ratios, angles, or atomic coordinates). An example of substitution derivatives is C (diamond)-ZnS (zinc blende)-Cu3SbS4 (famatinite). The most appropriate method to work out the relations between homeotypic structures takes advantage of their symmetry relations (cf. Chapter 18). [Pg.10]

Normally, solids are crystalline, i.e. they have a three-dimensional periodic order with three-dimensional translational symmetry. However, this is not always so. Aperiodic crystals do have a long-distance order, but no three-dimensional translational symmetry. In a formal (mathematical) way, they can be treated with lattices having translational symmetry in four- or five-dimensional space , the so-called superspace their symmetry corresponds to a four- or five-dimensional superspace group. The additional dimensions are not dimensions in real space, but have to be taken in a similar way to the fourth dimension in space-time. In space-time the position of an object is specified by its spatial coordinates x, y, z the coordinate of the fourth dimension is the time at which the object is located at the site x, y, z. [Pg.25]

Yet another type of canal structure has been reported for the urea inclusion compound of 1,4-dichlorobutane 51). Even though the canals are pseudo-hexagonal in dimension, there is a significant difference in their symmetry. The host lattice is orthorhombic, space group Pbcn. The difference lies in the directions of the six pseudo-3j helices of host molecules around the walls of each canal the sequence is cyc/o-RRRLLL, as opposed to cyc/o-RRRRRR in the hexagonal inclusion compounds and cvc/o-RLRLRL in the rhombohedral. This orthorhombic host structure probably occurs also in the urea inclusion compounds with 1,5-dichloropentane and 1,6-dibromohexane 51). [Pg.163]

© 2019 chempedia.info