In the preceding sections we derived an approximate expression for the thermal rate constant k(T). These derivations were not based on the general expressions for the rate constant that were derived in the first chapters. We consider here a derivation of the TST result that is based on an exact expression for a bimolecular rate constant. [Pg.149]

When we compare Eqs (6.8) and (6.25), we note that the TST expression for the rate constant would be obtained provided that the integral appearing in Eq. (6.25) was identical to the partition function of the activated complex. To that end, we introduce the approximation [Pg.149]

In order to proceed, we need to know the precise form of the cumulative reaction probability, and introduce the following approximation [Pg.150]

according to this description the reaction probability increases in a stepwise manner with increasing energy, as the quantized states of the activated complex become energetically open. Since the derivative of the step function is a delta function, we get [Pg.150]

The names of these compounds as aza analogs were coined in the same way as those of the 6-aza analogs employing the frequently used numbering of uracil (1). This nomenclature is most often used for the principal aza analogs of pyrimidine bases (e.g., 5-azauracil) it is rarely used for further systematic derivatives. [Pg.192]

Testing of object and component designs can be more difficult than in traditional systems because of the added complication of polymorphism, inheritance, and arbitrary overriding of behaviors. The essential idea of testing is to verify that an implementation meets its specification—the same goal as that of refinement except that testing tackles the problem by monitoring runtime behaviors under a systematically derived set of test cases. This chapter outlines a systematic test approach based on refinement. [Pg.239]

However, deviations from the parabolic profile become progressively important as the length of the polymers N or the grafting density pa decreases. In a systematic derivation of the mean-field theory for Gaussian brushes [52] it was shown that the mean-field theory is characterized by a single parameter, namely the stretching parameter fi. In the limit p oo, the difference between the classical approximation and the mean-field theory vanishes, and one obtains the parabolic density profile. For finite /3 the full mean-field the-... [Pg.160]

Within the frame of a program on simulation of the Brownian motion of chain molecules, the conformational static and dynamic properties of a model of PE are studied. In the present paper the same properties are systematically derived by using the RIS theory. As expected, there Is good agreement for static properties such as conformational averages and chain dimensions, in addition the local mobility of the chain Is favorably compared by the aid of the two approaches. [Pg.44]

Exercise. The way in which the stationary solution of (3.4) was found in the text was by noting that (3.1) does obey (2.4). A systematic derivation is also possible,... [Pg.175]

For the reader who felt uneasy with the various ad hoc approximations in the preceding section we now present a more systematic derivation of the same result. That also opens the door to higher approximations, although we shall not go through it. [Pg.405]

Monoclinic Space Groups. There are 13 monoclinic space groups and space limitations will not permit us to discuss all of them, let alone present a systematic derivation of them. We shall, however, use this set of groups to illustrate in a general way how the process of systematic derivation works. [Pg.392]

Here we skim over the field of semiempirical VB theory of the Jt-systems of benzenoids. Primary focus is on a systematic derivational development of a hierarchical sequence of VB models. Different VB-based models are addressed in different sections (2, 3,5, 6) here, and the overall development is summarized in the diagram at the conclusion of Sect. 7. Section 4 serves as an interlude on quantum chemical computational methods, with emphasis on the VB basis and its relationship to chemical structure — this being crucial for the following sections. Along the way we indicate some of the history and general characteristics of the models. The unifying view which emerges not only incorporates many aspects of past work but reveals avenues for future research. [Pg.59]

In chapter 5,1 argue that the category of quality can be systematically derived from form. According to what I call the canonical interpretation, the category of quality divides into four main species. I argue... [Pg.11]

The apparent lack of any systematic derivation of the list of species in the category of quality has not gone unnoticed by scholars. J.L. Ack-rill is representative ... [Pg.51]

In the last chapter, I argued that the category of quality admits of a systematic derivation from the nature of form. In this chapter I show that the category of quantity admits of a systematic derivation from matter, though as shall become apparent, form is implicated in the derivation in a way that matter is not implicated in the derivation of quality. [Pg.62]

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and L. P. Pitaevskii, "The general theory of van der Waals forces," Adv. Phys., 10, 165 (1961), for the method, though applied only to a vacuum gap see also Chapter VIII, E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2 in Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics Series (Pergamon, Oxford, 1991) a systematic derivation of the full DLP result is given also in Chap. 6 of A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gorkov, Sc I. E. Dzyaloshinski, Methods of Quantum Field Theory in Statistical Physics, R. A. Silverman, trans. (Dover, New York, 1963). [Pg.363]

The frequency postulates of Maxwell and Boltzmann just presented obviously need a justification even more than do the postulates about equal frequencies that we discussed under Section 4a. In fact, Maxwell and Boltzmann published their laws of distribution not as a hypothesis41 but as final results of systematic derivations. [Pg.9]

Semitrivial names. These are names that are derived by appending a systematically derived operator to a trivial parent. Examples are 8-(l,l-dimethylallyl)confusameline and A-cyano-i ec-pseudostrychnine. In general, such names should be avoided because of the possibilities for confusion, especially when there is a structure revision or where there is more than one numbering scheme in use for the parent skeleton. Trivial names should be preferred. [Pg.94]

While presenting a comprehensive analysis of two-phase flow, Wallis (1969) has discussed the problem of transition. He has given a very systematic derivation for the voidage propagation velocity and takes the form of Eq. (36) for the case of small variations about the steady state. [Pg.30]

Joshi (1987) and Clift (1993) have addressed this point in detail. Clift (1993) has provided the following systematic derivation. Consider a particle of arbitrary shape that is stationary in a fluid approaching with velocity Msup, where the fluid velocity need not be in the vertical direction (Fig. 49C). At any point on the surface of the particle, the fluid exerts a normal stress a and shear stress t. The force obtained by integrating t over the surface of the particle is the skin friction, and the component of this force parallel to u up is the skin friction drag. There is no argument over the formulation of t and hence skin friction. [Pg.121]

In this and the following sections we shall, more systematically, derive and discuss a number of important isotherm equations, together with the corresponding two-dimensional equations of state. For easy reference they are collected in app. 1. [Pg.75]

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