In classical mechanics, the state of the system may be completely specified by the set of Cartesian particle coordinates r. and velocities dr./dt at any given time. These evolve according to Newton s equations of motion. In principle, one can write down equations involving the state variables and forces acting on the particles which can be solved to give the location and velocity of each particle at any later (or earlier) time t, provided one knows the precise state of the classical system at time t. In quantum mechanics, the state of the system at time t is instead described by a well behaved mathematical fiinction of the particle coordinates q- rather than a simple list of positions and velocities. [Pg.5]

In classical mechanics, it is certainly possible for a system subject to dissipative forces such as friction to come to rest. For example, a marble rolling in a parabola lined with sandpaper will eventually lose its kinetic energy and come to rest at the bottom. Rather remarkably, making a measurement of E that coincides with [Pg.20]

In classical mechanics, the Hamiltonian function is the expression of the energy of a molecular system in terms of the momenta of the particles in the system and [Pg.37]

In a strict sense, the classical Newtonian mechanics and the Maxwell s theory of electromagnetism are not compatible. The M-M-type experiments refuted the geometric optics completed by classical mechanics. In classical mechanics the inertial system was a basic concept, and the equation of motion must be invariant to the Galilean transformation Eq. (1). After the M-M experiments, Eq. (1) and so any equations of motion became invalid. Einstein realized that only the Maxwell equations are invariant for the Lorentz transformation. Therefore he believed that they are the authentic equations of motion, and so he created new concepts for the space, time, inertia, and so on. Within [Pg.398]

Denotes a variation about the motion of the system in Classical Mechanics [Pg.1598]

Up until now, little has been said about time. In classical mechanics, complete knowledge about the system at any time t suffices to predict with absolute certainty the properties of the system at any other time t. The situation is quite different in quantum mechanics, however, as it is not possible to know everything about the system at any time t. Nevertheless, the temporal behavior of a quantum-mechanical system evolves in a well defined way drat depends on the Hamiltonian operator and the wavefiinction T" according to the last postulate [Pg.11]

Boltzmann distribution law in classical mechanics involves the Boltzmann factor e wlkT in the same way as that for quantum mechanics. In classical mechanics the state of a system can be described by giving the values of the coordinates and the momenta, for example, for a single particle the values of the three coordinates x, y, and z, and of the three linear momenta px, py, and pt which are equal to the mass of the particle multiplied by the components of velocity in the x, y, and z di- [Pg.603]

It was Poincare who introduced a major revolution in the analysis of dynamical systems in classical mechanics. Instead of focussing on the time evolution of individual trajectories of a system, he emphasized the global point of view (Poincare (1892, 1993)). Poincare argued that it was much more important to know about the qualitative behaviour of the solutions of a given dynamical system in different parts of the classical phase space, than to know the detailed time evolution of a special solution. Poincare developed this point of view by analysing the age old question of whether the solar system is stable. Clearly the answer to this question is a quaUtative statement about a property of the solar [Pg.29]

It is convenient to analyse tliese rate equations from a dynamical systems point of view similar to tliat used in classical mechanics where one follows tire trajectories of particles in phase space. For tire chemical rate law (C3.6.2) tire phase space , conventionally denoted by F, is -dimensional and tire chemical concentrations, CpC2,- are taken as ortliogonal coordinates of F, ratlier tlian tire particle positions and velocities used as tire coordinates in mechanics. In analogy to classical mechanical systems, as tire concentrations evolve in time tliey will trace out a trajectory in F. Since tire velocity functions in tire system of ODEs (C3.6.2) do not depend explicitly on time, a given initial condition in F will always produce tire same trajectory. The vector R of velocity functions in (C3.6.2) defines a phase-space (or trajectory) flow and in it is often convenient to tliink of tliese ODEs as describing tire motion of a fluid in F with velocity field/ (c p). [Pg.3055]

Besides the interaction potential, an equation is also needed for describing the dynamics of the system, i.e. how the system evolves in time. In classical mechanics this is Newton s second law (F is the force, a is the acceleration, r is the position vector and m the particle mass). [Pg.2]

Since the outcome of the collision only depends on the relative motion of the reactant molecules, we begin with an elimination of the center-of-mass motion of the system. From classical mechanics it is known that the relative translational motion of two atoms may be described as the motion of one pseudo-atom , with the reduced mass fj, = rri nif)/(m + mB), relative to a fixed center of force. This result can be generalized to molecules by introducing proper relative coordinates, to be described in detail in Section 4.1.4. [Pg.53]

This type of energy exchange in an autoionization process may correspond with the behavior of a kicked rotator in classical mechanics, which is known to exhibit chaos. It would be worthwhile to consider an autoionization process of a simple diatomic molecule in its Rydberg states to understand experimentally the essential dynamics of a quantum system, whose classical counterpart exhibits chaos. [Pg.446]

The dynamical quantities corresponding to diagonal matrices relative to the stationary-state wave functions k0, Ski, are sometimes called constants of the motion of the system. The corresponding constants of the motion of a system in classical mechanics are the constants of integration of the classical equation of motion. [Pg.422]

The topic that is commonly referred to as statistical quantum mechanics deals with mixed ensembles only, although pure ensembles may be represented in the same formalism. There is an interesting difference with classical statistics arising here In classical mechanics maximum information about all subsystems is obtained as soon as maximum information about the total system is available. This statement is no longer valid in quantum mechanics. It may happen that the total system is represented by a pure ensemble and a subsystem thereof by a mixed ensemble. [Pg.452]

Another important limitation of current MD methods is that of the conservation of zero point energy (see Ref. [21] and references therein). In a many-atom system the total quantum mechanical zero point energy can be quite high, and, in classical mechanics, this energy is available to the system. Additional sources of reviews of current methodologies are Refs. [22-24], [Pg.212]

In contrast to dissipative dynamical systems, conservative systems preserve phase-space volumes and hence cannot display any attracting regions in phase space there can be no fixed points, no limit cycles and no strange attractors. There can nonetheless be chaotic motion in the sense that points along particular trajectories may show sensitivity to initial conditions. A familiar example of a conservative system from classical mechanics is that of a Hamiltonian system. [Pg.171]

If the force on a particle is a known function of position, Eq. (E-1) is an equation of motion, which determines the particle s position and velocity for all values of the time if the position and velocity are known for a single time. Classical mechanics is thus said to be deterministic. The state of a system in classical mechanics is specified by giving the position and velocity of every particle in the system. All mechanical quantities such as kinetic energy and potential energy have values that are determined by the values of these coordinates and velocities, and are mechanical state functions. The kinetic energy of a point-mass particle is a state function that depends on its velocity [Pg.1267]

© 2019 chempedia.info