In solids of cubic symmetry or in isotropic, homogeneous polycrystalline solids, the lateral component of stress is related to the longitudinal component of stress through appropriate elastic constants. A representation of these uniaxial strain, hydrostatic (isotropic) and shear stress states is depicted in Fig. 2.4. Such relationships are thought to apply to many solids, but exceptions are certainly possible as in the case of vitreous silica [88C02]. [Pg.26]

In crystals, the response of the crystal to a longitudinal loading may produce deformation controlled by the crystal symmetry that is not uniaxial [Pg.26]

Later, we will use these relations for the representation of the stress tensor. [Pg.135]

Let us consider investigation of stresses in a 3-D specimen. It has been shown [1] that in the case of weak birefringence a 3-D specimen can be investigated in a conventional transmission polariscope as if it were a two dimensional specimen. On every ray of light it is possible to determine the parameter of the isoclinic and the optical path difference A. The latter are related to the components of the stress tensor on the ray by linear integral relationships... [Pg.135]

In integrated photoelasticity it is impossible to achieve a complete reconstruction of stresses in samples by only illuminating a system of parallel planes and using equilibrium equations of the elasticity theory. Theory of the fictitious temperature field allows one to formulate a boundary-value problem which permits to determine all components of the stress tensor field in some cases. If the stress gradient in the axial direction is smooth enough, then perturbation method can be used for the solution of the inverse problem. As an example, distribution of stresses in a bow tie type fiber preforms is shown in Fig. 2 [2]. [Pg.138]

Aben, H., Idnurm, S., Josepson, J., Kell, K.-J., Puro, A. Optical tomography of the stress tensor field. Proc. SPIE, ISfS "Analytical methods for optical tomography , 1991, 220-229. [Pg.138]

Approach to restoring of stresses SD in the three-dimensional event requires for each pixel determinations of matrix with six independent elements. Type of matrixes depends on chosen coordinate systems. It is arised a question, how to present such result for operator that he shall be able to value stresses and their SD. One of the possible ways is a calculation and a presenting in the form of image of SD of stresses tensor invariants. For three-dimensional SDS relative increase of time of spreading of US waves, polarized in directions of main axises of stresses tensor ... [Pg.252]

Romanishin l.M. Tomographic restoring of stress tensor field by the acoustoelastic method //Defectoscopy. 1995. N 5 - p.46-50 (in Russian). [Pg.253]

A proposal based on Onsager s theory was made by Landau and Lifshitz [27] for the fluctuations that should be added to the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic equations. Fluctuating stress tensor and heat flux temis were postulated in analogy with the Onsager theory. Flowever, since this is a case where the variables are of mixed time reversal character, tlie derivation was not fiilly rigorous. This situation was remedied by tlie derivation by Fox and Ulilenbeck [13, H, 18] based on general stationary Gaussian-Markov processes [12]. The precise fomi of the Landau proposal is confimied by this approach [14]. [Pg.705]

The lack of correlation between the flucUiating stress tensor and the flucUiating heat flux in the third expression is an example of the Curie principle for the fluctuations. These equations for flucUiating hydrodynamics are arrived at by a procedure very similar to that exliibited in the preceding section for difllisioii. A crucial ingredient is the equation for entropy production in a fluid... [Pg.706]

The equation of momentum conservation, along with the linear transport law due to Newton, which relates the dissipative stress tensor to the rate of strain tensor = 1 (y. 4, and which introduces two... [Pg.722]

Surface waves at an interface between two innniscible fluids involve effects due to gravity (g) and surface tension (a) forces. (In this section, o denotes surface tension and a denotes the stress tensor. The two should not be coiifiised with one another.) In a hydrodynamic approach, the interface is treated as a sharp boundary and the two bulk phases as incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations for the two bulk phases (balance of macroscopic forces is the mgredient) along with the boundary condition at the interface (surface tension o enters here) are solved for possible hamionic oscillations of the interface of the fomi, exp [-(iu + s)t + i V-.r], where m is the frequency, is the damping coefficient, s tlie 2-d wavevector of the periodic oscillation and. ra 2-d vector parallel to the surface. For a liquid-vapour interface which we consider, away from the critical point, the vapour density is negligible compared to the liquid density and one obtains the hydrodynamic dispersion relation for surface waves + s>tf. The temi gq in the dispersion relation arises from... [Pg.725]

The situation is more complex for rigid media (solids and glasses) and more complex fluids that is, for most materials. These materials have finite yield strengths, support shears and may be anisotropic. As samples, they usually do not relax to hydrostatic equilibrium during an experiment, even when surrounded by a hydrostatic pressure medium. For these materials, P should be replaced by a stress tensor, <3-j, and the appropriate thermodynamic equations are more complex. [Pg.1956]

Continuum theory has also been applied to analyse tire dynamics of flow of nematics [77, 80, 81 and 82]. The equations provide tire time-dependent velocity, director and pressure fields. These can be detennined from equations for tire fluid acceleration (in tenns of tire total stress tensor split into reversible and viscous parts), tire rate of change of director in tenns of tire velocity gradients and tire molecular field and tire incompressibility condition [20]. [Pg.2558]

Parodi O 1970 Stress tensor for a nematic liquid crystal J.PhysiqueZ 581-4... [Pg.2569]

In the simplest case of Newtonian fluids (linear Stokesian fluids) the extra stress tensor is expressed, using a constant fluid viscosity p, as... [Pg.4]

Other combinations of upper- and lower-convected time derivatives of the stress tensor are also used to construct constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. For example, Johnson and Segalman (1977) have proposed the following equation... [Pg.12]

A frequently used example of Oldroyd-type constitutive equations is the Oldroyd-B model. The Oldroyd-B model can be thought of as a description of the constitutive behaviour of a fluid made by the dissolution of a (UCM) fluid in a Newtonian solvent . Here, the parameter A, called the retardation time is de.fined as A = A (r s/(ri + s), where 7]s is the viscosity of the solvent. Hence the extra stress tensor in the Oldroyd-B model is made up of Maxwell and solvent contributions. The Oldroyd-B constitutive equation is written as... [Pg.12]

Here /, r and, v are unequal integers in the set 1, 2, 3. As already mentioned, in the thin-layer approach the fluid is assumed to be non-elastic and hence the stress tensor here is given in ternis of the rate of deforaiation tensor as r(p) = riD(ij), where, in the present analysis, viscosity p is defined using the power law equation. The model equations are non-dimensionalized using... [Pg.177]

Note that convected derivatives of the stress (and rate of strain) tensors appearing in the rheological relationships derived for non-Newtonian fluids will have different forms depending on whether covariant or contravariant components of these tensors are used. For example, the convected time derivatives of covariant and contravariant stress tensors are expressed as... [Pg.263]

The strain and integrated stress tensors are denoted by = ey(lF),

The structure of the section is as follows. In Section 2.8.2 we give necessary definitions and construct a Borel measure n which describes the work of the interaction forces, i.e. for a set A c F dr, the value /a(A) characterizes the forces at the set A. The next step is a proof of smoothness of the solution provided the exterior data are regular. In particular, we prove that horizontal displacements W belong to in a neighbourhood of the crack faces. Consequently, the components of the strain and stress tensors belong to the space In this case the measure n is absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. This confirms the existence of a locally integrable function q called a density of the measure n such that... [Pg.140]

The nonpenetration condition considered in this section leads to new effects such as the appearance of interaction forces between crack faces. It is of interest to establish the highest regularity of the solution up to the crack faces and thus to analyse the smoothness of the interaction forces. The regularity of the solution stated in this section entails the components of the strain and stress tensors to belong to in the vicinity of the crack and the interaction forces to belong to T. If the crack shape is not regular, i.e. 0 1), the interaction forces can be characterized by the nonnegative... [Pg.148]

Denote hy W = (w, w ), w horizontal and vertical displacements of the mid-surface points, respectively, and write down the formulae for strain and integrated stress tensor components y(lL), aij W) ... [Pg.172]

We shall consider an equilibrium problem with a constitutive law corresponding to a creep, in particular, the strain and integrated stress tensor components (IT ), ay(lT ) will depend on = (lT, w ), where (lT, w ) are connected with (IT, w) by (3.1). In this case, the equilibrium equations will be nonlocal with respect to t. [Pg.172]

We assume that the physical parameters of the lower plate coincide with those of the upper plate in particular, the stress tensors and strain tensors of the lower plate satisfy (3.44). The thickness of the lower plate is 2s. The following conditions are considered at the external boundary T ... [Pg.187]

Consider an inclined crack with the nonpenetration condition of the form (3.173), (3.176). Let % = (IL, w) be the displacement vector of the midsurface points. Introduce the strain and stress tensor components Sij =... [Pg.223]

The functions v,aij,Sij v) represent the velocity, components of the stress tensor and components of the rate strain tensor. The dot denotes the derivative with respect to t. The convex and continuous function describes the plasticity yield condition. It is assumed that the set... [Pg.309]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.30 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.58 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.404 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.515 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.44 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.81 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.58 ]

© 2019 chempedia.info