For an arbitrary canonical density operator, the phase space centroid distribution fimction is imiquely defined. However, this function does not directly contain any dynamical information from the quantum ensemble because such information has been lost in the course of the trace operation. The lost information may be recovered by associating to each value of the centroid distribution function the following normalized operator [Pg.52]

To start, we note that in analogy to Eq. (A.2), the phase space probability distribution for state Fp is given by [Pg.223]

As a consequence, within statistical mechanics a macroscopic state F (f) is characterized by its phase space probability distribution Pr (o( 5P) defined so that PT (t)

The voids within the porous media are occupied by gas and liquid. The terms used to describe the phase distribution in the pore space include saturation and fluid content. The saturation (5o,) is defined as the volume occupied by phase a divided by the pore volume, while the fluid content (6a) is defined as the volume of fluid a divided by the sample volume. The sum of all phase saturations is equal to 1, and the sum of all fluid contents is equal to the porosity. [Pg.987]

The problems with the adiabatic Yamada-Kawasaki distribution and its thermostatted versions can be avoided by developing a nonequilibrium phase space probability distribution for the present case of mechanical work that is analogous to the one developed in Section IVA for thermodynamic fluxes due to imposed thermodynamic gradients. The odd work is required. To obtain this, one extends the work path into the future by making it even about t [Pg.52]

Flavor partition coefficients. The equilibrium distribution of a particular flavor molecule between two phases (e.g., oil-water, air-water, or air-oil) is characterized by an equilibrium partition function. These partition coefficients determine the distribution of the flavor molecules between the oil, water, and head space phases of an emulsion. [Pg.1853]

The need to include quantum mechanical effects in reaction rate constants was realized early in the development of rate theories. Wigner [8] considered the lowest order terms in an -expansion of the phase-space probability distribution function around the saddle point, resulting in a separable approximation, in which bound modes are quantized and a correction is included for quantum motion along the reaction coordinate - the so-called Wigner tunneling correction. This separable approximation was adopted in the standard ad hoc procedure for quan- [Pg.833]

How do we calculate the probability of a fluctuation about an equilibrium state Consider a system characterized by a classical Hamiltonian H r, p ) where p and denote the momenta and positions of all particles. The phase space probability distribution isf (r, p ) = Q exp(—/i22(r, p )), where Q is the canonical partition function. [Pg.561]

These normal modes evolve independently of each other. Their classical equations of motion are Uk = —co Uk, whose general solution is given by Eqs (6.81). This bath is assumed to remain in thermal equilibrimn at all times, implying the phase space probability distribution (6.77), the thermal averages (6.78), and equilibrium time correlation functions such as (6.82). The quantum analogs of these relationships were discussed in Section 6.5.3. [Pg.458]

The maximum entropy method (MEM) is an information-theory-based technique that was first developed in the field of radioastronomy to enhance the information obtained from noisy data (Gull and Daniell 1978). The theory is based on the same equations that are the foundation of statistical thermodynamics. Both the statistical entropy and the information entropy deal with the most probable distribution. In the case of statistical thermodynamics, this is the distribution of the particles over position and momentum space ( phase space ), while in the case of information theory, the distribution of numerical quantities over the ensemble of pixels is considered. [Pg.115]

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