Figure 2.5 Shearing force per unit area versus shear rate. The experimental points are measured for polyethylene, and the labeled lines are drawn according to the relationship indicated. (Data from J. M. McKelvey, Polymer Processing, Wiley, New York, 1962.) |

Figure C2.9.2 Shear force versus time during (a) sliding and (b) stick-slip motion. The motion of the surface beneath the sliding block of figure C2.9.1 is at constant velocity. |

Figure Bl.20.15. Shear force as a fimction of time for (a) bare mica in toluene and (b) polystyrene-covered mica in toluene. Reproduced with pennission from [9], |

The work term IF is restricted to the mechanical work deflvered to the outside via normal and shear forces acting on the boundary. Electrochemical work, ie, by electrolysis of the fluid, is excluded. Evaluation of the integral requires knowledge of the equation of state and the thermodynamic history of the fluid [Pg.109]

Thus, under conditions of plastic defonnation the real area of contact is proportional to the nonnal force. If the shear force during sliding is proportional to that area, one has the condition that the shear force is proportional to the nonnal force, thus leading to the definition of a coefficient of friction. [Pg.2742]

In Sec. 2.2 we saw that the coefficient of viscosity is defined as the factor of proportionality between the shearing force per unit area = F /A and the velocity gradient dv/dy within a liquid [Eq. (2.2)] [Pg.584]

The radius R also applies to the entire fluid sample. Since torque equals the product of force and R, canceling out one power of R leaves the shearing force acting on the fluid on the left-hand side of Eq. (2.7). [Pg.82]

Three common types of nozzle are shown diagrammatically. Types A and K are similar, with sharp cutoffs on the ends of the outer and inner capillaries to maximize shear forces on the liquid issuing from the end of the inner tube. In types K and C, the inner capillary does not extend to the end of the outer tube, and there is a greater production of aerosol per unit time. These concentric-tube nebulizers operate at argon gas flows of about 1 1/min. [Pg.143]

Figure 2.7 Potential energy as a function of location along the reaction coordinate. The solid line describes an undisturbed liquid the broken line applies to liquids subjected to shearing force. |

There are three major aspects of polymer viscosity discussed in this chapter. First, we shall consider the fact that most bulk polymers display shear-dependent viscosity that is, this property does not have a single value but varies with the shearing forces responsible for the flow. Second, the molecular weight dependence of polymer viscosity is examined. We may correctly expect a [Pg.75]

Suppose we divide the flow segments into classes according to relaxation times and index the various states by the subscript i. Thus the relaxation time and the component of shear stress borne by the segments in class i are and Fj, respectively. The applied shear force is related to the Fj s through [Pg.101]

Until now we have restricted ourselves to consideration of simple tensile deformation of the elastomer sample. This deformation is easy to visualize and leads to a manageable mathematical description. This is by no means the only deformation of interest, however. We shall consider only one additional mode of deformation, namely, shear deformation. Figure 3.6 represents an elastomer sample subject to shearing forces. Deformation in the shear mode is the basis [Pg.155]

Surface Tension. Interfacial surface tension between fluid and filter media is considered to play a role in the adhesion of blood cells to synthetic fibers. Interfacial tension is a result of the interaction between the surface tension of the fluid and the filter media. Direct experimental evidence has shown that varying this interfacial tension influences the adhesion of blood cells to biomaterials. The viscosity of the blood product is important in the shear forces of the fluid to the attached cells viscosity of a red cell concentrate is at least 500 times that of a platelet concentrate. This has a considerable effect on the shear and flow rates through the filter. The surface stickiness plays a role in the critical shear force for detachment of adhered blood cells. [Pg.524]

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