The only size-related quantity for the incident electron is its de Broglie wavelength, [Pg.337]

Q (see Vol 7, H38-L), or the related quantity, njTj, where nj is the number of moles of gas under steady (Chapman-Jouguet) detonation conditions and Tj is the detonation temp-. [Pg.841]

The chemical potential of oxygen can now be derived and the related quantity log pC>2 expressed as a function of <5 [Pg.298]

The steric constant Es and related quantities do not constitute the only approach to the study of steric effects on reactivity. Steric strain energy calculations and topological indices are more recent approaches. Qualitative concepts have been [Pg.343]

Choice of method to follow the extent of reaction with respect to time or a time-related quantity (e.g., by chemical analysis). [Pg.45]

The internal pressure is a differential quantity that measures some of the forces of interaction between solvent molecules. A related quantity, the cohesive energy density (ced), defined by Eq. (8-35), is an integral quantity that measures the total molecular cohesion per unit volume. - p [Pg.412]

The volume of the coil domain which appears in Eq. (8.109) can also be grouped with related quantities as a factor in the geometrical part of the problem. Our primary interest is in the appearance of the factor 1/2 - x in the expression for AGjg and-via Eqs. (8.105) and (8.106)-the idea that [Pg.562]

In order to express the importance of the ions to the growth process quantitatively, two related quantities can be defined the fraction of arriving ions per deposited atom, / , and the kinetic energy transferred by ions per deposited atom, Emd, - These quantities are used in ion-beam-assisted deposition in order to relate material properties to ion flux and energy [421]. Their definition is [Pg.118]

What Are the Key Ideas Tlic direction of natural change coi responds 10 the increasing disorder of energy and matter. Disorder is measured by the thermodynamic quantity called entropy. A related quantity—the Gibbs free energy—provides a link between thermodynamics and the description of chemical equilibrium. [Pg.386]

This is the integrated rate equation for a first-order reaction. When dealing with first-order reactions it is customary to use not only the rate constant, k for the reaction but also the related quantity half-life of the reaction. The half-life of a reaction refers to the time required for the concentration of the reactant to decrease to half of its initial value. For the first-order reaction under consideration, the relation between the rate constant k and the half life t0 5 can be obtained as follows [Pg.299]

Even further complications are to be expected for general systems of the type (3). These are related to the approximation of the slowly varying solution components and other related quantities of (3) for k —> oo by the corresponding solution of the constrained system DAE [Pg.282]

The Volta potential is defined as the difference between the electrostatic outer potentials of two condensed phases in equilibrium. The measurement of this and related quantities is performed using a system of voltaic cells. This technique, which in some applications is called the surface potential method, is one of the oldest but still frequently used experimental methods for studying phenomena at electrified solid and hquid surfaces and interfaces. The difficulty with the method, which in fact is common to most electrochemical methods, is lack of molecular specificity. However, combined with modem surface-sensitive methods such as spectroscopy, it can provide important physicochemical information. Even without such complementary molecular information, the voltaic cell method is still the source of much basic electrochemical data. [Pg.13]

In this book, an alternative description based on the joint probability density function (PDF) of the species concentrations will be developed. (Exact definitions of the joint PDF and related quantities are given in Chapter 3.) The RTD function is in fact the PDF of the fluid-element ages as they leave the reactor. The relationship between the PDF description and the RTD function can be made transparent by defining a fictitious chemical species [Pg.27]

The discretized equations of the finite volume method are solved through an iterative process. This can sometimes have difficulty converging, especially when the nonlinear terms play a strong role or when turbulence-related quantities such as k and s are changing rapidly, such as near a solid surface. To assist in convergence a relaxation factor can be introduced [Pg.341]

In this section, we develop two simple models, each of which has one adjustable parameter the tanks-in-series (TIS) model and the axial-dispersion or dispersed-plug-flow (DPF) model. We focus on the description of flow in terms of RTD functions and related quantities. In principle, each of the two models is capable of representing flow in a single vessel between the two extremes of BMF and PF. [Pg.471]

Rather than quote some (mass normalized) force on the sample at each of several field strengths, it is sufficient to report the slope of the linear part of the curve in Fig. 5-6. This slope is called the magnetic susceptibility of the sample. Units for susceptibility, x > and related quantities to be discussed in this section are reviewed in Box 5-3. [Pg.84]

Fugacity, like other thermodynamics properties, is a defined quantity that does not need to have physical significance, but it is nice that it does relate to physical quantities. Under some conditions, it becomes (within experimental error) the equilibrium gas pressure (vapor pressure) above a condensed phase. It is this property that makes fugacity especially useful. We will now define fugacity, see how to calculate it, and see how it is related to vapor pressure. We will then define a related quantity known as the activity and describe the properties of fugacity and activity, especially in solution. [Pg.247]

In this contribution it is shown that local density functional (LDF) theory accurately predicts structural and electronic properties of metallic systems (such as W and its (001) surface) and covalently bonded systems (such as graphite and the ethylene and fluorine molecules). Furthermore, electron density related quantities such as the spin density compare excellently with experiment as illustrated for the di-phenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Finally, the capabilities of this approach are demonstrated for the bonding of Cu and Ag on a Si(lll) surface as related to their catalytic activities. Thus, LDF theory provides a unified approach to the electronic structures of metals, covalendy bonded molecules, as well as semiconductor surfaces. [Pg.49]

It is important to realise that whilst complete dissociation occurs with strong electrolytes in aqueous solution, this does not mean that the effective concentrations of the ions are identical with their molar concentrations in any solution of the electrolyte if this were the case the variation of the osmotic properties of the solution with dilution could not be accounted for. The variation of colligative, e.g. osmotic, properties with dilution is ascribed to changes in the activity of the ions these are dependent upon the electrical forces between the ions. Expressions for the variations of the activity or of related quantities, applicable to dilute solutions, have also been deduced by the Debye-Hiickel theory. Further consideration of the concept of activity follows in Section 2.5. [Pg.23]

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