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** Relative retention time as a reference for unknown **

If the reference time f and the current time t coincide then the reference and current positions will also coincide and the right-hand side of Equation (3.77) can be replaced by the reference position defined as x in Equation (3.76). In a velocity field given as = u x,t ) the motion of a material point can be described [Pg.104]

Note the close resemblance between the reference time of the internal rotary diffusion of the magnetic moment and the Debye time [Pg.432]

Finally, if a Markov process is in some state 5 at some (reference) time t0, and if 6 is the random time required for the process to leave state s to go to some other state, then the probability that 6 is larger than some arbitrary time t is given by [Pg.287]

Adding time-dependent terms to the equations the simulation is treated as an initial value problem in which at a given reference time all stresses are zero the steady-state solution can be found iteratively. [Pg.95]

Some BOMs have validities start and end of validity interval and the reference time used to determine if the product flow is valid or not earliest start, due date, start or end of production. [Pg.81]

The first tank ( M = 3.9 x 105 kg) ruptured at 2 40 p.m. (Note This time is chosen as reference time, t = 0.) All the chloroform was lost within a very short time. [Pg.1132]

Qualitative analysis of bile samples is performed using retention time of nor-DCA (internal standard) as relative reference time. [Pg.633]

The idea behind OELs is to identify the highest level of exposure concentration and the corresponding reference time period for which we can be confident that there will be no adverse effects on health. However, the concentrations and lengths of exposure at which the presence of airborne chemical agents could damage health have not been clear for many years, and even today there are many questions to be answered. [Pg.363]

In this section we study the arbitrary relationship between the external and internal orientational relaxation reference times. [Pg.545]

Rivlin-Ericksen tensor of order n, for a viscoelastic liquid or solid in homogeneous deformation, is the nth time derivative of the Cauchy strain tensor at reference time, t. Note 1 For an inhomogeneous deformation the material derivatives have to be used. [Pg.151]

Cerenkov radiation accounts for a very minor part of the energy loss of fast electrons. Its main importance is for monitoring purposes and establishment of a reference time, since it is produced almost instantaneously with the passage of the particle. Katsumura et al. (1985) have observed a very fast rise of solute fluorescence attributable to the Cerenkov effect the G value for this process is estimated to be -0.02. [Pg.36]

Correlation functions are powerful tools in statistical physics, and in the above example they permit one to examine the behavior of a fluctuating system from a reference time back to previous times. Such fluctuations can occur in the concentration of two (or more) interconverting chemical species in dynamic equilibrium, and the technique of concentration correlation analysis permits one to determine the forward and reverse rate constants for their interconversion. See Concentration Correlation Analysis [Pg.170]

Here r(t) is the stress at a fluid particle given by an integral of deformation history along the fluid particle trajectory between a deformed configuration at time f and the current reference time t. [Pg.13]

These solutions of the idealized problem are a good approximation for the behavior within a time window Xx < t < Xu or the corresponding frequency window 1/2U < co < l/X. Truncation effects can be seen near the edges Xx and Xu. X0 is some material-specific reference time, which has to be specified in each choice of material, and H0r(n) = G0 is the corresponding modulus value. [Pg.223]

Since we do not weigh these streaks, we assumed that the Ag + Cu + Zn + As + Sb + Au = 100%. By comparing the radioactivity levels in the streaks with those in the standard alloy streaks (each corrected for decay to a common reference time) we can then calculate the percent ratios Cu/Ag, Au/Ag, Zn/Ag, Sb/Ag, and As/Ag. The combination of these ratio data and the above equation allows us to calculate the individual percent values. Various chemical analyses reported in the literature for silver coins and art objects indicate that other elements such as lead and tin (which we do not detect) are usually present at less than 2%. There are notable exceptions however. Some types of coins from certain periods contain up to 10-15% Pb + Bi. As a result, we have always performed direct neutron Howitzer silver analysis on at least a few coins of each general type that are analyzed by streak analysis. The silver data for the Howitzer analysis are invariably lower than those for the streak analysis, but this is to be expected for two reasons the [Pg.136]

Although the partial differential equation Eq. 25-10 is linear and looks rather simple, explicit analytical solutions can be derived only for special cases. They are characterized by the size of certain nondimensional numbers that completely determine the shape of the solutions in space and time. A reference distance x0 and a reference time f0 are chosen that are linked by [Pg.1160]

** Relative retention time as a reference for unknown **

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