For realistic systems, the HQ calculation for the middle system and the LQ calculation for the real system can be expensive we have no choice but using MM in the real system. The AMI as the highest level (semiempirical QM/MM) has too large an error to be useful, while also a QM-MM boundary close to the region of the action, in ONIOM(QM MM MM), produces large errors. [Pg.30]

Let s select a more realistic system response, say, a simple first-order function with unity steady state gain [Pg.112]

Many realistic systems and their models have been considered to study dynamical chaos phenomenon. Such systems as, kicked rotor and various billiard geometries allow one to treat chaotic behavior of deterministic systems successfully. [Pg.184]

Kohn-Sham or Slater exchange was more accurate for realistic systems [H]. Slater suggested that a parameter be introduced that would allow one to vary the exchange between the Slater and Kolm-Sham values [19]. The parameter, a, was often [Pg.96]

However, some model systems constituted in smface chemistry studies are still far away from the realistic systems in applied catalysis [51, 52], so we reemphasize here the need for [Pg.236]

There are several commercial packages that realise the above strategy for molecularly realistic systems. It is useful to discuss some of the limitations. Ideally, one would like to do simulations on macroscopic systems. However, it is impossible to use a computer to deal with numbers of degrees of freedom on the order of /Vav. In lipid systems, where the computations of all the interactions in the system are expensive, a typical system can contain of the order of tens of thousands of particles. Recently, massive systems with up to a million particles have been considered [33], Even for these large simulations, this still means that the system size is limited to the order of 10 nm. Because of this small size, one refers to this volume as a box, although the system boundaries are typically not box-like. Usually the box has periodic boundary conditions. This implies that molecules that move out of the box on one side will enter the box on the opposite side. In such a way, finite size effects are minimised. In sophisticated simulations, i.e. (N, p, y, Tj-ensembles, there are rules defined which allow the box size and shape to vary in such a way that the intensive parameters (p, y) can assume a preset value. [Pg.34]

The purpose of studying this simplified ease first is to reduce the problem to its most elementary form so that the basie structure of the equations can be clearly seen. In the next example, a more realistic system will be modeled. [Pg.65]

Now that we understand some of the numerical-analysis tools, let us illustrate their application to some chemical engineering systems. We will start with simple examples and work our way up to more realistic systems that involve many simultaneous ordinary differential and nonlinear algebraic equations. [Pg.116]

Another subject with important potential application is discussed in Section XIV. There we suggested employing the curl equations (which any Bohr-Oppenheimer-Huang system has to obey for the for the relevant sub-Hilbert space), instead of ab initio calculations, to derive the non-adiabatic coupling terms [113,114]. Whereas these equations yield an analytic solution for any two-state system (the abelian case) they become much more elaborate due to the nonlinear terms that are unavoidable for any realistic system that contains more than two states (the non-abelian case). The solution of these equations is subject to boundary conditions that can be supplied either by ab initio calculations or perturbation theory. [Pg.714]

Earlier we used a relatively simple model composed of a slider and substrate to demonstrate how mechanical instabilities lead to energy dissipation and friction. However, realistic contacts are much more complex. For instance, real contacts can rarely be described as one-dimensional and almost always contain some molecules that act as impurities. Understanding the frictional aspects of these systems will require a consideration of the role instabilities play in systems that are more complex than the PT model. In this section, we discuss studies that investigate instabilities in more realistic systems. [Pg.105]

A second recent development has been the application 46 of the initial value representation 47 to semiclassically calculate A3.8.13 (and/or the equivalent time integral of the flux-flux correlation fiinction). While this approach has to date only been applied to problems with simplified hannonic baths, it shows considerable promise for applications to realistic systems, particularly those in which the real solvent bath may be adequately treated by a fiirther classical or quasiclassical approximation. [Pg.893]

The power of optical spectroscopies is that they are often much better developed than their electron-, ion- and atom-based counterparts, and therefore provide results that are easier to interpret. Furtlienuore, photon-based teclmiques are uniquely poised to help in the characterization of liquid-liquid, liquid-solid and even solid-solid interfaces generally inaccessible by other means. There has certainly been a renewed interest in the use of optical spectroscopies for the study of more realistic systems such as catalysts, adsorbates, emulsions, surfactants, self-assembled layers, etc. [Pg.1779]

The next question asked is whether there are any indications, from ab initio calculations, to the fact that the non-adiabatic transfonnation angles have this feature. Indeed such a study, related to the H3 system, was reported a few years ago [64]. However, it was done for circular contours with exceptionally small radii (at most a few tenths of an atomic unit). Similar studies, for circular and noncircular contours of much larger radii (sometimes up to five atomic units and more) were done for several systems showing that this feature holds for much more general situations [11,12,74]. As a result of the numerous numerical studies on this subject [11,12,64-75] the quantization of a quasi-isolated two-state non-adiabatic coupling term can be considered as established for realistic systems. [Pg.638]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.125 , Pg.295 ]

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