This rule conforms with the principle of equipartition of energy, first enunciated by Maxwell, that the heat capacity of an elementary solid, which reflected the vibrational energy of a three-dimensional solid, should be equal to 3RJK-1 mol-1. The anomaly that the free electron theory of metals described a metal as having a three-dimensional structure of ion-cores with a three-dimensional gas of free electrons required that the electron gas should add another (3/2)R to the heat capacity if the electrons behaved like a normal gas as described in Maxwell s kinetic theory, whereas the quantum theory of free electrons shows that these quantum particles do not contribute to the heat capacity to the classical extent, and only add a very small component to the heat capacity. [Pg.164]

Recall the other serious difficulty discussed in Chapter 17 that arises from the fact that the classically predicted heat capacity of the electrons is not observed even though they are the major contributor to both the thermal and electrical conductivity of metals. We will find yet another problem with the classical theory when we take up the topic of paramagnetism and find that the electronic contribution expected from classical theory is not observed. Despite the success of the classical Drude theory of the free electron gas in being able to describe many of the observed properties of metals, it was these discrepancies between the classical theory and observation that prompted theorists to reexamine the classical theory of the electron and to apply the quantum mechanical treatment that had been developed to explain the electronic structure of atoms and molecules to describe the behavior of electrons in metals. [Pg.346]

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