If 1.0 mol of W and 3.0mol of Q are placed in a 1.0-L vessel and allowed to come to equilibrium, calculate the equilibrium concentration of Z using the following steps (a) If the equilibrium concentration of Z is equal to x, how much Z was produced by the chemical reaction (b) How much R was produced by the chemical reaction (c) How much W and Q were used up by the reaction (d) How much W is left at equilibrium (e) How much Q is left at equilibrium (/) With the value of the equilibrium constant given, will x (equal to the Z concentration at equilibrium) be significant when subtracted from 1.0 (g) Approximately what concentrations of W and Q will be present at equilibrium (/t) What is the value of x (/) What is the concentration of R at equilibrium (7) Is the answer to part (/) justified [Pg.296]

Example 9.4 deals with a system at equilibrium, but suppose the reaction mixture has arbitrary concentrations. How can we tell whether it will have a tendency to form more products or to decompose into reactants To answer this question, we first need the equilibrium constant. We may have to determine it experimentally or calculate it from standard Gibbs free energy data. Then we calculate the reaction quotient, Q, from the actual composition of the reaction mixture, as described in Section 9.3. To predict whether a particular mixture of reactants and products will rend to produce more products or more reactants, we compare Q with K [Pg.489]

What will happen if we mix A, B, P, and Q together There s some gray area here in that the answer depends somewhat on what we mean by happen. First, it depends on direction. A more appropriate way to ask the question is, Will the reaction happen in the direction written, that is, left to right Second, it depends on the actual concentrations of A, B, P, and Q that you start with. Third, it really depends on the relationship between the initial concentrations of A, B, P, and Q and the equilibrium concentrations that will exist when the reaction finally comes to equilibrium. Finally, when A, B, P, and Q are mixed, they will take off toward the equilibrium position, whatever that is, but thermodynamics doesn t tell you how long it might take for the reaction to actually get to equilibrium. The How fasti is kinetics. So the real answer is that when we mix A, B, P, and Q, the reaction will happen in the direction that takes you to equilibrium. When the reaction is actually at equilibrium, the concentrations of A, B, P, and Q will be equal to their equilibrium concentrations. [Pg.275]

The molar enthalpy of vaporization for liquid bromine is 30.71 kj/mol. Calculate the entropy change in the system, the surroimdings, and the universe for the reversible vaporization of 1 mol of liquid bromine (Br2) at its normal boiling point (59°Q. Answer 93J/K-mol [Pg.747]

C14-0098. Use data from Appendix D to answer quantitatively the following questions about the dissolving of table salt in water under standard conditions Naess ) Na ((2 q) + d ((2 q) (a) Is this a spontaneous reaction (b) Does it release energy (c) Does the chemical system become more constrained [Pg.1039]

Albertus, Frater. Questions and answers. Parachemy 1, no. 4 (Autumn 1973) 90-. I http //homepages.ihug.com.au/ panopus/parachemy/parachemvi4.htm q al. [Pg.215]

Albertus, Frater. Questions and answers. Essentia 5, no. 1 (Fall 1983). [http // homepages.ihug.comau/ panopus/essentia/essentiavl.htm q a1. [Pg.215]

The last approximation is for finite At. When the equations of motions are solved exactly, the model provides the correct answer (cr = 0). When the time step is sufficiently large we argue below that equation (10) is still reasonable. The essential assumption is for the intermediate range of time steps for which the errors may maintain correlation. We do not consider instabilities of the numerical solution which are easy to detect, and in which the errors are clearly correlated even for large separation in time. Calculation of the correlation of the errors (as defined in equation (9)) can further test the assumption of no correlation of Q t)Q t )). [Pg.268]

Albertus, Frater. Inquiries by students. .. and answers. Essentia 3, no. 3 (Fall 1982). [htt // homepages.ihug.com,au/ panopus/essentia/essentiaiii3.htm q a1. [Pg.214]

Suppose an inert material is transpired into a tubular reactor in an attempt to achieve isothermal operation. Suppose the transpiration rate q is independent of and that qL = Qtrms- Assume all fluid densities to be constant and equal. Find the fraction unreacted for a first-order reaction. Express your final answer as a function of the two dimensionless parameters, QtranslQin and kVIQm where k is the rate constant and [Pg.115]

The factor 3 appears because the viscosity is defined for shear deformation - as is the shear modulus G. For tensile deformation we want the viscous equivalent of Young s modulus . The answer is 3ri, for much the same reason that = (8/3)G 3G - see Chapter 3.) Data giving C and Q for polymers are available from suppliers. Then [Pg.193]

Students often ask, What is enthalpy The answer is simple. Enthalpy is a mathematical function defined in terms of fundamental thermodynamic properties as H = U+pV. This combination occurs frequently in thermodynamic equations and it is convenient to write it as a single symbol. We will show later that it does have the useful property that in a constant pressure process in which only pressure-volume work is involved, the change in enthalpy AH is equal to the heat q that flows in or out of a system during a thermodynamic process. This equality is convenient since it provides a way to calculate q. Heat flow is not a state function and is often not easy to calculate. In the next chapter, we will make calculations that demonstrate this path dependence. On the other hand, since H is a function of extensive state variables it must also be an extensive state variable, and dH = 0. As a result, AH is the same regardless of the path or series of steps followed in getting from the initial to final state and [Pg.20]

We now have the tools necessary to describe how a polymeric material will respond to applied stresses. The next step is to add a method to characterize individual polymers in terms of the ease by which they deform. Imagine that we impose a shear stress on two different materials for the same length of time. In the first material we observe a great deal of deformation in the second there is very little. What is the reason for this The answer lies in the fact that there are fundamental differences in the response of each of the materials to the imposed stress. We define these differences by taking the ratio of the applied stress to the strain rate and calling it the material s viscosity, q, which is defined in Eq. 6.3. [Pg.124]

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