Preceding papers. h Preliminary values obtained through redetermination of parameters in crystals (cal-cite and sodium nitrate) by Mr. Norman Elliot. The values in parentheses are based on older parameter determinations. c L. Pauling and L. O. Brockway, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 20, 336 (1934). The value 1.25 A. reported in crystals of oxalic acids and oxalates is probably less reliable. [Pg.204]

Ayyub, B. M. and McCuen, R. H. 1997 Probability, Statistics and Reliability for Engineers. Boca Raton CRC Press. [Pg.381]

Figure 8 compares the failure probability and reliability functions for an exponential distribution. Whereas the reliability of the device is initially unity, it falls off exponentially with time and asymptotically approaches zero. The failure probability, on the other hand, does the reverse. Thus new devices start life with high reliability and end with a high failure probability. [Pg.475]

Kottegoda, N. T., and Russo, R. Statistics, Probability and Reliability Methods for Civil and Environmental Engineers. New York McGraw-Hill, 1997. [Pg.181]

Vescly, V. E., 1977, Estimating Common Cause Failure Probability in Reliability and Risk Analyses Marshall-Olkin Specializations, Proc. Int. Conf. Nucl. Systems Rel. Eng. F ment, Gatlinburg, TN, June. [Pg.491]

Hazard, risk, failure, and reliability are interrelated concepts concerned with uncertain events and tlierefore amenable to quantitative measurement via probability. [Pg.566]

Hazard, risk, failure, and reliability are interrelated concepts concerned witli uncertain events and tlierefore amenable to quantitative measurement via probability. "Hazard" is defined as a potentially dangerous event. For example, tlie release of toxic fumes, a power outage, or pump failure. Actualization of the potential danger represented by a hazard results in undesirable consequences associated with risk. [Pg.541]

The proposed approaches allow us to simplify the mathematical format, if the prediction of survival probabilities and reliability indices of sustainable series, parallel and series-parallel systems are based on the additional concepts of Transformed Conditional Probabilities (TCP) and Conventional Correlation Vectors (CCV). They help us avoid of complicated multidimensional integrations both in a safety analysis of general systems and their autosystem components. [Pg.1746]

The book contains, in alphabetical order, failure rates, event rates and probabilities, and descriptive information which has been collected since 1970 in the course of doing risk and reliability assessments. Twenty appendices contain results of surveys on bursting discs, pipes, valves, relief valves, pump failures and information on human error, international fire losses, and blast effects. [Pg.31]

The results of this procedure are shown in Figure 11-14. The symbol P represents the probability and R represents the reliability. The failure probabilities for the basic events were obtained from Example 11-2. I [Pg.497]

The target minimum annual exceedence probabilities Pfannual, for each performance level, is shown in Table 4. This table also shows the corresponding exceedence probabilities and reliability indices for the seismic event, P/e and Pe- [Pg.559]

Risk is defined as tlie product of two factors (1) tlie probability of an undesirable event and (2) tlie measured consequences of the undesirable event. Measured consequences may be stated in terms of financial loss, injuries, deatlis, or Ollier variables. Failure represents an inability to perform some required function. Reliability is the probability that a system or one of its components will perform its intended function mider certain conditions for a specified period. Tlie reliability of a system and its probability of failure are complementary in tlie sense tliat the sum of these two probabilities is unity. This cluipler considers basic concepts and llieorenis of probability tliat find application in tlie estimation of risk and reliability. [Pg.541]

A meehanieal eomponent is eonsidered safe and reliable when the strength of the eomponent, S, exeeeds the value of loading stress, L, on it (Rao, 1992). When the loading stress exeeeds the strength, failure oeeurs, the reliability of the part, R, being related to this failure probability, P, by equation 4.26 [Pg.177]

T3rpical non-electrical applications are fluid flow systems including oil flow, and general material transport. Presumably also traffic and communication systems can be analyzed by this method. In these cases the power flow model is replaced by the actual system model. The principle based on unit models can also be used in general probability and reliability calculations to build extremely large models. [Pg.2112]

Typical events that are considered are fire, explosion, ship collision, and the failure of pressurized storage vessels for which historical data established the failure frequencies. Assessment of consequences was based partly on conservative treatment of past experience. For example ilic assessment of the number of casualties from the release of a toxic material was based on past histoiy conditioned by knowledge of the toxicology and the prevailing weather conditions. An altemati. e used fault trees to estimate probabilities and identify the consequences. Credit is taken in this process for preventative measures in design, operation, and maintenance procedures. Historical data provide reliability expected from plant components and humans. [Pg.433]

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