In contrast, the amount of material being conveyed inside each pipe branch of a flow splitting application is very high and hence, design cannot be based on air-only analyses alone. For example, Low et al., 1987 have proposed the following empirical relationship to determine the head loss of a pipe branch. [Pg.766]

Good flow splitting design is dependent on the accurate prediction of the pressure drop caused by the various bends, branches and straight sections of pipe. This can be achieved by employing the above branch model(s), proven for the particular material and application, coupled with the accurate pipeline test-design procedure described in Sec. 2.4 of this chapter. [Pg.766]

Pressure Drop. The prediction of pressure drop in fixed beds of adsorbent particles is important. When the pressure loss is too high, cosdy compression may be increased, adsorbent may be fluidized and subject to attrition, or the excessive force may cmsh the particles. As discussed previously, RPSA rehes on pressure drop for separation. Because of the cychc nature of adsorption processes, pressure drop must be calculated for each of the steps of the cycle. The most commonly used pressure drop equations for fixed beds of adsorbent are those of Ergun (143), Leva (144), and Brownell and co-workers (145). Each of these correlations uses a particle Reynolds number (Re = G///) and friction factor (f) to calculate the pressure drop (AP) per... [Pg.287]

The utihty iadustry utilizes fans typically from 6.7—10 m diameter ia banks of 8 to 12 fans ia wet cooling towers. These towers cool the water used to condense the steam from the turbiaes. Many towers may be needed ia large plants requiring as many as 50 to 60 fans 12 m in diameter. These fans typically utilize velocity recovery stacks to recoup some of the velocity pressure losses and convert it to useful static pressure work. [Pg.113]

The concept of the specific resistance used in equation 4 is based on the assumptions that flow is one-dimensional, growth of cake is unrestricted, only soHd and Hquid phases are present, the feed is sufficiently dilute such that the soHds are freely suspended, the filtrate is free of soHds, pressure losses in feed and filtrate piping are negligible, and flow is laminar. Laminar flow is a vaHd assumption in most cake formation operations of practical interest. [Pg.392]

Advantages of the pitot method of measurement are low pressure loss and easy installation. In some cases, installations in existing lines are made without process shutdown by hot tapping the line (7). [Pg.61]

Electromagnetic flow meters ate available in essentially all pipe si2es, ie, 1 mm to 3 m, and provide measurement accuracy of 1% of rate or better over wide ranges. The meters are obstmctionless, have no moving parts, and are extremely mgged. Pressure loss is that of an equivalent section of pipe. [Pg.65]

Flow Past Bodies. A fluid moving past a surface of a soHd exerts a drag force on the soHd. This force is usually manifested as a drop in pressure in the fluid. Locally, at the surface, the pressure loss stems from the stresses exerted by the fluid on the surface and the equal and opposite stresses exerted by the surface on the fluid. Both shear stresses and normal stresses can contribute their relative importance depends on the shape of the body and the relationship of fluid inertia to the viscous stresses, commonly expressed as a dimensionless number called the Reynolds number (R ), EHp/]1. The character of the flow affects the drag as well as the heat and mass transfer to the surface. Flows around bodies and their associated pressure changes are important. [Pg.89]

Absorber oil units offer the advantage that Hquids can be removed at the expense of only a small (34—69 kPa (4.9—10.0 psi)) pressure loss in the absorption column. If the feed gas is available at pipeline pressure, then Httle if any recompression is required to introduce the processed natural gas into the transmission system. However, the absorption and subsequent absorber-oil regeneration process tends to be complex, favoring the simpler, more efficient expander plants. Separations using soHd desiccants are energy-intensive because of the bed regeneration requirements. This process option is generally considered only in special situations such as hydrocarbon dew point control in remote locations. [Pg.172]

The term pressure drop usually refers to the pressure loss that is not recoverable in the circuit, and it is lost energy that is dissipated into the fluid stream in the form of heat energy. The pressure drop in a flow circuit is associated with various forms of energy dissipation owing to friction, change in flow area, flow turning, and others ... [Pg.490]

Fig. 7. (a) Configuration for flow turning. The frictional resistance resulting from the bend length must be added (b) pressure—loss coefficient, K, for 90°... [Pg.492]

Piping systems where pressure loss determines all or part of the pressure rise developed by pumps or compressors. In these systems the choice... [Pg.54]

In order to select the pipe size, the pressure loss is calculated and velocity limitations are estabHshed. The most important equations for calculation of pressure drop for single-phase (Hquid or vapor) Newtonian fluids (viscosity independent of the rate of shear) are those for the deterrnination of the Reynolds number, and the head loss, (16—18). [Pg.55]

The flow resistance of pipe fittings (elbows, tees, etc) and valves is expressed in terms of either an equivalent length of straight pipe or velocity head loss (head loss = Kv /2g ). Most handbooks and manufacturers pubHcations dealing with fluid flow incorporate either tables of equivalent lengths for fittings and valves or K values for velocity head loss. Inasmuch as the velocity in the equipment is generally much lower than in the pipe, a pressure loss equal to at least one velocity head occurs when the fluid is accelerated to the pipe velocity. [Pg.55]

Although it has been common practice to specify the pressure loss in ordinary valves in terms of either equivalent length of straight pipe of the same size or velocity head loss, it is becoming more common to specify flow rate and pressure drop characteristics in the same terms as has been the practice for valves designed specifically for control service, namely, in terms of the valve coefficient, C. The flow coefficient of a valve is defined as the volume of Hquid at a specified density that flows through the fully opened valve with a unit pressure drop, eg, = 1 when 3.79 L/min (1 gal /min) pass through the valve... [Pg.57]

In diatomaceous-earth filtration, the powdered filter aid is built upon a relatively loose septum to screen out suspended soHds. The filter becomes clogged, and pressure losses become excessive backwashing is then necessary. The smallest removable particle is 0.5—1 p.m (see Diatomite). [Pg.293]

Although mote expensive to fabricate than the pelleted catalyst, and usually more difficult to replace or regenerate, the honeycomb catalyst is more widely used because it affords lower pressure losses from gas flow it is less likely to collect particulates (fixed-bed) or has no losses of catalyst through attrition, compared to fiuidized-bed and it allows a mote versatile catalyst bed design (18), having a weU-defined flow pattern (no channeling) and a reactor that can be oriented in any direction. [Pg.503]

Permanent pressure loss across a subsonic flow nozzle is approximated by... [Pg.892]

See Benedict, loc. cit., for a general equation for pressure loss for nozzles installed in pipes or with plenum inlets. Nozzles show higher loss than venturis. Permanent pressure loss for laminar flow depends on the Reynolds number in addition to p. For details, see Alvi, Sri-dharan, and Lakshamana Rao, J. Fluids Eng., 100, 299-307 (1978). [Pg.892]

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See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.82 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.230 ]

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