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** Differential equations nonlinear **

** Differential equations partial **

** Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equations **

** Nonlinear/nonlinearity equations **

** Similarity Solution Technique for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations **

The nonlinearity of the system of partial differential equations (51) and (52) poses a serious obstacle to finding an analytical solution. A reported analytical solution for the nonlinear problem of diffusion coupled with complexation kinetics was erroneous [12]. Thus, techniques such as the finite element method [53-55] or appropriate change of variables (applicable in some cases of planar diffusion) [56] should be used to find the numerical solution. One particular case of the nonlinear problem where an analytical solution can be given is the steady-state for fully labile complexes (see Section 3.3). However, there is a reasonable assumption for many relevant cases (e.g. for trace elements such as [Pg.179]

While nonlinear in g2 (the coefficients 7,.r and b are lengthy integral expressions), the partial differential equation is linear in the derivatives. It can thus be solved by the method of characteristics, with the boundary conditions given by the coupling at /x = 0, as obtained from finite-T lattice QCD. [Pg.141]

Let us consider the genera class of systems described by a system of n nonlinear parabolic or hyperbolic partial differential equations. For simplicity vve assume that we have only one spatial independent variable, z. [Pg.168]

The simulation of a continuous, evaporative, crystallizer is described. Four methods to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation which describes the population dynamics, are compared with respect to their applicability, accuracy, efficiency and robustness. The method of lines transforms the partial differential equation into a set of ordinary differential equations. The Lax-Wendroff technique uses a finite difference approximation, to estimate both the derivative with respect to time and size. The remaining two are based on the method of characteristics. It can be concluded that the method of characteristics with a fixed time grid, the Lax-Wendroff technique and the transformation method, give satisfactory results in most of the applications. However, each of the methods has its o%m particular draw-back. The relevance of the major problems encountered are dicussed and it is concluded that the best method to be used depends very much on the application. [Pg.159]

The mathematical model developed in the preceding section consists of six coupled, three-dimensional, nonlinear partial differential equations along with nonlinear algebraic boundary conditions, which must be solved to obtain the temperature profiles in the gas, catalyst, and thermal well the concentration profiles and the velocity profile. Numerical solution of these equations is required. [Pg.129]

The principal use of Eq. (173) is in conjunction with a similar heat dispersion equation. Unfortunately, a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations then has to be solved, which is very difficult even with the aid of computers. In the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Hall and Smith (HI) found relatively good agreement between theory and experiment near the center of the reactor. Their calculations were based on the heat-dispersion equation, and they did not take detailed mass dispersion into account. Baron (B2) later solved the mass and heat dispersion equations simultaneously by a novel graphical method, and found better agreement between his calculations and the data of Hall and Smith. [Pg.183]

The combined fiuld fiow, heat transfer, mass transfer and reaction problem, described by Equations 2-7, lead to three-dimensional, nonlinear, time dependent partial differential equations. The general numerical solution of these goes beyond the memory and speed capabilities of the current generation of supercomputers. Therefore, we consider appropriate physical assumptions to reduce the computations. [Pg.358]

The problem in obtaining a state space model for the dynamics of the CSD from this physical model is that the population balance is a (nonlinear) first-order partial differential equation. Consequently, to obtain a state space model the population balance must be transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations. After this transformation, the state space model is easily obtained by substitution of the algebraic relations and linearization of the ordinary differential equations. [Pg.145]

The partial differential equations representing material and energy balances of a reaction in a packed bed are rarely solvable by analytical means, except perhaps when the reaction is of zero or first order. Two examples of derivation of the equations and their analytical solutions are P8.0.1.01 and P8.01.02. In more complex cases analytical, approximations can be made (by "Collocation" or "Perturbation", for instance), but these usually are quite sophisticated to apply. Numerical solutions, on the other hand, are simple in concept and are readily implemented on a computer. Two such methods that are suited to nonlinear kinetics problems will be described. [Pg.810]

Errors are proportional to At for small At. When the trapezoid rule is used with the finite difference method for solving partial differential equations, it is called the Crank-Nicolson method. The implicit methods are stable for any step size but do require the solution of a set of nonlinear equations, which must be solved iteratively. The set of equations can be solved using the successive substitution method or Newton-Raphson method. See Ref. 36 for an application to dynamic distillation problems. [Pg.473]

The modeling of steady-state problems in combustion and heat and mass transfer can often be reduced to the solution of a system of ordinary or partial differential equations. In many of these systems the governing equations are highly nonlinear and one must employ numerical methods to obtain approximate solutions. The solutions of these problems can also depend upon one or more physical/chemical parameters. For example, the parameters may include the strain rate or the equivalence ratio in a counterflow premixed laminar flame (1-2). In some cases the combustion scientist is interested in knowing how the system mil behave if one or more of these parameters is varied. This information can be obtained by applying a first-order sensitivity analysis to the physical system (3). In other cases, the researcher may want to know how the system actually behaves as the parameters are adjusted. As an example, in the counterflow premixed laminar flame problem, a solution could be obtained for a specified value of the strain [Pg.404]

Mathematical physics deals with a variety of mathematical models arising in physics. Equations of mathematical physics are mainly partial differential equations, integral, and integro-differential equations. Usually these equations reflect the conservation laws of the basic physical quantities (energy, angular momentum, mass, etc.) and, as a rule, turn out to be nonlinear. [Pg.774]

The material and energy balances of a tubular vessel are based on the conservation law, Eq 2.42, applied to a differential ring between r and r+dr and z and z+dz. A material balance is derived, for example, in problem P5.08.01, and is quoted in Table 2.6 along with the heat balance. The result is a pair of second order partial differential equations, usually nonlinear, that must be solved numerically. Table 2.6 indicates one possible procedure, but computer software is plentiful. [Pg.51]

** Differential equations nonlinear **

** Differential equations partial **

** Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equations **

** Nonlinear/nonlinearity equations **

** Similarity Solution Technique for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations **

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