Table I. Parameters Estimation for the Mathematic Model Granular starch-Parafilm blends |

Estimating of Parameters in the Mathematic Model. Equation (17) was fitted to the data obtained by sampling method 2. Using a minimization technique, a least squares fit was obtained and parameters estimated for the model. [Pg.263]

The coefficient of correlation values (R2) were quite low for the estimated friability mathematical models. It seems that this response was independent of the studied parameters and their levels and, in our case, friability was not an important response to be optimized. This response could only be an evaluated property. Lindberg and Holmsquist [6] had also obtained low R2 values for this response (R2=0.57 and 0.68). [Pg.59]

Parameter estimation and identification are an essential step in the development of mathematical models that describe the behavior of physical processes (Seinfeld and Lapidus, 1974 Aris, 1994). The reader is strongly advised to consult the above references for discussions on what is a model, types of models, model formulation and evaluation. The paper by Plackett that presents the history on the discovery of the least squares method is also recommended (Plackett, 1972). [Pg.2]

ACSL- OPTIMIZE PC Powerful mathematics, building blocks especially for control purposes, includes powerful and user-friendly optimisation and parameter estimation. [Pg.226]

Basically two search procedures for non-linear parameter estimation applications apply (Nash and Walker-Smith, 1987). The first of these is derived from Newton s gradient method and numerous improvements on this method have been developed. The second method uses direct search techniques, one of which, the Nelder-Mead search algorithm, is derived from a simplex-like approach. Many of these methods are part of important mathematical packages, e.g., ASCL and MATLAB. [Pg.79]

Chemical kinetics is an area that received perhaps most of the attention of chemical engineers from a parameter estimation point of view. Chemical engineers need mathematical expressions for the intrinsic rate of chemical reactions [Pg.3]

In classical statistics, the most important type of criterion for judging estimators is a high probability that a parameter estimate will be close to the actual value of the parameter estimated. To implement the classical approach, it is necessary to quantify the closeness of an estimate to a parameter. One may rely on indices of absolute, relative, or squared error. Mean squared error (MSB) has often been used by statisticians, perhaps usually because of mathematical convenience. However, if estimators are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation it is easy to use whatever criterion seems most reasonable in a given situation. [Pg.37]

Section 1.6.2 discussed some theoretical distributions which are defined by more or less complicated mathematical formulae they aim at modeling real empirical data distributions or are used in statistical tests. There are some reasons to believe that phenomena observed in nature indeed follow such distributions. The normal distribution is the most widely used distribution in statistics, and it is fully determined by the mean value p. and the standard deviation a. For practical data these two parameters have to be estimated using the data at hand. This section discusses some possibilities to estimate the mean or central value, and the next section mentions different estimators for the standard deviation or spread the described criteria are fisted in Table 1.2. The choice of the estimator depends mainly on the data quality. Do the data really follow the underlying hypothetical distribution Or are there outliers or extreme values that could influence classical estimators and call for robust counterparts [Pg.33]

A survey of the mathematical models for typical chemical reactors and reactions shows that several hydrodynamic and transfer coefficients (model parameters) must be known to simulate reactor behaviour. These model parameters are listed in Table 5.4-6 (see also Table 5.4-1 in Section 5.4.1). Regions of interfacial surface area for various gas-liquid reactors are shown in Fig. 5.4-15. Many correlations for transfer coefficients have been published in the literature (see the list of books and review papers at the beginning of this section). The coefficients can be evaluated from those correlations within an average accuracy of about 25%. This is usually sufficient for modelling of chemical reactors. Mathematical models of reactors arc often more sensitive to kinetic parameters. Experimental methods and procedures for parameters estimation are discussed in the subsequent section. [Pg.288]

Parameter Estimation Relational and physical models require adjustable parameters to match the predicted output (e.g., distillate composition, tower profiles, and reactor conversions) to the operating specifications (e.g., distillation material and energy balance) and the unit input, feed compositions, conditions, and flows. The physical-model adjustable parameters bear a loose tie to theory with the limitations discussed in previous sections. The relational models have no tie to theory or the internal equipment processes. The purpose of this interpretation procedure is to develop estimates for these parameters. It is these parameters hnked with the model that provide a mathematical representation of the unit that can be used in fault detection, control, and design. [Pg.2573]

It would be of obvious interest to have a theoretically underpinned function that describes the observed frequency distribution shown in Fig. 1.9. A number of such distributions (symmetrical or skewed) are described in the statistical literature in full mathematical detail apart from the normal- and the f-distributions, none is used in analytical chemistry except under very special circumstances, e.g. the Poisson and the binomial distributions. Instrumental methods of analysis that have Powjon-distributed noise are optical and mass spectroscopy, for instance. For an introduction to parameter estimation under conditions of linked mean and variance, see Ref. 41. [Pg.29]

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