In all these treatments, nonequilibrium fluctuation plays the most important role. This is defined as the fluctuation of a physical quantity that deviates from the standard state determined by the nonzero flux in a nonequilibrium state. Such fluctuation has a kind of symmetry in that the area average is equal to zero although the flux changes locally. Therefore, macroscopically, such fluctuation does not affect the flux itself. This means that the flux must be determined a priori and is indifferent to the fluctuations. [Pg.249]

As discussed earlier, the amorphous state is a nonequilibrium state at temperatures below the equilibrium melting temperature of a material. Because of the nonequilibrium nature of the amorphous state, various properties of amorphous materials, such as the glass transition, are dependent on time and temperature (Slade and Levine, 1988,1991 Roos, 1995,2003). Therefore, [Pg.77]

The volume of substance in a composite material that exists in a nonequilibrium state due to its proximity to an interface has been termed an interphase [1]. The interphase is a zone of distinct composition and properties formed by chemical or physical processes such as interdiffusion of mutually soluble components or chemical interaction between reactive species. [Pg.433]

In the transfer equilibrium of metaUic ions oy. equals oy and in the nonequilibrium state oyj deviates from oy to a certain level given by Eqn. 9-2 [Pg.289]

The first question posed in the introduction, Question (3), makes the point that one cannot have a theory for the nonequilibrium state based on the first entropy or its rate of production. It ought to be clear that the steady state, which corresponds to the most likely flux, x(x, i), gives neither the maximum nor the minimum of Eq. (61), the rate of first entropy production. From that equation, the extreme rates of first entropy production occur when x = oo. Theories that invoke the Principle of Minimum Dissipation, [10-12, 32] or the Principle of [Pg.21]

Arguably a more practical approach to higher-order nonequilibrium states lies in statistical mechanics rather than in thermodynamics. The time correlation function gives the linear response to a time-varying field, and this appears in computational terms the most useful methodology, even if it may lack the [Pg.82]

The reason that the Second Law has no quantitative relevance to nonequilibrium states is that it gives the direction of change, not the rate of change. So although it allows the calculation of the thermodynamic force that drives the system toward equilibrium, it does not provide a basis for calculating the all [Pg.2]

Eq 7 calculates the energy difference arising from the medium between the thermally equilibrated mixed-valence ground state and a vibrationally nonequilibrium, mixed-valence excited state. The value of Ae depends on the nonequilibrium state 1) For optical charge transfer, Ae = e, the unit electron charge. 2) For thermal electron transfer between chemically symmetrical sites, Ae = e/4. 3) For a chemically unsymmetrical electron transfer [Pg.146]

Note that Eq. (6) includes thermodynamic equilibrium (v° = 0) as a special case. However, usually the steady-state condition refers to a stationary nonequilibrium state, with nonzero net flux and positive entropy production. We emphasize the distinction between network stoichiometry and reaction kinetics that is implicit in Eqs. (5) and (6). While kinetic rate functions and the associated parameter values are often not accessible, the stoichiometric matrix is usually (and excluding evolutionary time scales) an invariant property of metabolic reaction networks, that is, its entries are independent of temperature, pH values, and other physiological conditions. [Pg.122]

The probability of charging a trap when a metal particle is ionized by a metastable atom can be characterized by the ratio of the time the barrier stays in nonequilibrium state to the time constant of trap recharging. [Pg.336]

This is a law about the equilibrium state, when macroscopic change has ceased it is the state, according to the law, of maximum entropy. It is not really a law about nonequilibrium per se, not in any quantitative sense, although the law does introduce the notion of a nonequilibrium state constrained with respect to structure. By implication, entropy is perfectly well defined in such a nonequilibrium macrostate (otherwise, how could it increase ), and this constrained entropy is less than the equilibrium entropy. Entropy itself is left undefined by the Second Law, and it was only later that Boltzmann provided the physical interpretation of entropy as the number of molecular configurations in a macrostate. This gave birth to his probability distribution and hence to equilibrium statistical mechanics. [Pg.2]

If the approach does not go beyond the ordinary entropy, or if it applies an optimized result to a constrained state, then one can immediately conclude that a quantitative theory for the nonequilibrium state is unlikely to emerge. Regrettably, for phenomenological theories of the type just discussed, the answer to both questions is usually negative. The contribution of Prigogine, in particular, will be critically assessed from these twin perspectives (see Section HE). [Pg.5]

It is evident that the above simulation results can reproduce essentially all characteristic features such as "flat plateau", "zero surface pressure , and "overshoot hump observed in the actual it-A curves. These properties are characteristic examples of nonlinearity in the nonequilibrium state of a thin [Pg.235]

Analysis of flow-pattern transition instability The boundary of flow pattern transitions is not sharply defined, but is usually an operational band. As discussed in Chapter 3, analytical methods for predicting the stability of flow patterns are quite limited and require further development. The same is true for analyses of nonequilibrium state instability. [Pg.501]

The main problem of elementary chemical reaction dynamics is to find the rate constant of the transition in the reaction complex interacting with its environment. This problem, in principle, is close to the general problem of statistical mechanics of irreversible processes (see, e.g., Blum [1981], Kubo et al. [1985]) about the relaxation of initially nonequilibrium state of a particle in the presence of a reservoir (heat bath). If the particle is coupled to the reservoir weakly enough, then the properties of the latter are fully determined by the spectral characteristics of its susceptibility coefficients. [Pg.7]

The third approach is called the thermodynamic theory of passive systems. It is based on the following postulates (1) The introduction of the notion of entropy is avoided for nonequilibrium states and the principle of local state is not assumed, (2) The inequality is replaced by an inequality expressing the fundamental property of passivity. This inequality follows from the second law of thermodynamics and the condition of thermodynamic stability. Further the inequality is known to have sense only for states of equilibrium, (3) The temperature is assumed to exist for non-equilibrium states, (4) As a consequence of the fundamental inequality the class of processes under consideration is limited to processes in which deviations from the equilibrium conditions are small. This enables full linearization of the constitutive equations. An important feature of this approach is the clear physical interpretation of all the quantities introduced. [Pg.646]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.434 , Pg.436 , Pg.442 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.52 ]

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