MESO-SCALE MODELING—THE KEY TO MULTI-SCALE APPROACHES [Pg.24]

Lu, B., EMMS-based Meso-Scale Model and Its Application in Simulating Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flows, Ph.D. thesis (in Chinese), Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (2009). [Pg.56]

According to the choice of meso-scale models, we may divide the multi-scale CFD into two branches the "correlative" and the "variational," as named in Li and Kwauk (2003) and will be discussed in the following sections. [Pg.12]

Energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model—a meso-scale model [Pg.24]

The "variational type of multi-scale CFD, here, refers to CFD with meso-scale models featuring variational stability conditions. This approach can be exemplified by the coupling of the EMMS model (Li and Kwauk, 1994) and TFM, where the EMMS/matrix model (Wang and Li, 2007) at the subgrid level is applied to calculate a structure-dependent drag force. [Pg.15]

Following the above approach, the correlative multi-scale CFD reduces the computation cost by transforming information over a range of scales into meso-scale models. With these works, it seems feasible to establish a numerical experiment facility to consider thoroughly the [Pg.13]

The final two chapters discuss modeling of PEFCs. Mukherjee and Wang provide an in-depth review of meso-scale modeling of two-phase transport, while Zhou et al. summarize both the simulation of electrochemical reactions on electrocatalysts and the transport of protons through the polymer electrolyte using atomistic simulation tools such as molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques. [Pg.404]

To meet the industrial demand for both large-scale computation and good predictability, the reasonable way out is not to simulate from the beginning of the micro-scale, but to use coarse-grid simulation with meso-scale modeling for the effects of structure. This kind of approach can be termed the "multi-scale CFD." It is entitled "multi-scale," not because the problem it solves is multi-scale, but because its meso-scale model contains multi-scale structure parameters. [Pg.12]

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