In conjunction with the use of isoparametric elements it is necessary to express the derivatives of nodal functions in terms of local coordinates. This is a straightforward procedure for elements with C continuity and can be described as follows Using the chain rule for differentiation of functions of multiple variables, the derivative of a function in terms of local variables ij) can be expressed as... [Pg.37]

Richard, A. and Nicolaides, G., Differential Aeration Corrosion of Passivating Metal Under a Moist Film of Locally Variable Thickness , J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 183 (1974)... [Pg.197]

Takesue [takes87] defines the energy of an ERCA as a conserved quantity that is both additive and propagative. As we have seen above, the additivity requirement merely stipulates that the energy must be written as a sum (over all sites) of identical functions of local variables. The requirement that the energy must also be propagative is introduced to prevent the presence of local conservation laws. If rules with local conservation laws spawn information barriers, a statistical mechanical description of the system clearly cannot be realized in this case. ERCA that are candidate thermodynamic models therefore require the existence of additive conserved quantities with no local conservations laws. A total of seven such ERCA rules qualify. ... [Pg.385]

For the purpose of illustration, let us next consider the simple 2D case. Introducing the local variables (i, ) where ie[—runs along the instanton path Qo(i) and is the coordinate perpendicular to the instanton, we obtain... [Pg.131]

Local variable in a subprogram was never given a value. [Pg.689]

procedure body, is any nonempty list of assignment instructions, test instructions and CALL instructions, involving as variables only the formal parameters and local variables of the procedure, such that START Q STOP is a program scheme with CALLs. [Pg.253]

The procedure definition gives us a local value TEMP. When substituting into the main program, formal parameter u becomes actual parameter x, y becomes and TEMP becomes TEMP. In fact, TEMP was introduced so that we do not change the value of the global variable x while executing the subroutine. Notice that in 3.4, FACT calls itself, this time with actual parameters TEMP and z- as this example shows, a local variable can become an actual parameter of another CALL. [Pg.255]

The next thing to observe is that we enter 3.4 with the test again positive and must insert another copy of FACT, this time just before the END FACT statement of the first copy. This time the actual parameters are, as mentioned, TEMP and z. The local variable of this CALL is not supposed to be the same as for the previous one, so we need a new variable and use TEMP2 this illustrates why we must change the names of the local variables, too. [Pg.259]

All local variables and formal parameters are distinct new variables, and all local variables die at the end of the procedure subroutine. [Pg.259]

Example VII - 5 gives a complete first level macroexpansion of the scheme of Example VII - 4. All calls are now recursive with respect to the original scheme the process needed to be carried out only once. The resulting scheme is not unique because we could have chosen the names of the new variables in different ways. In particular, since the three calls expanded were independent in the sense that at most one could be executed at a time, and local variables are destroyed after completion of a call, we could have used the same variable, say TEMP-, for all three replacements of local variable TEMP (for that matter, we could have used TEMP itself.)... [Pg.261]

Let P = (Q,Qp,...,Q ) be a recursion augmented program scheme with n global variables (locations in Q ) x-, ..., x. For each address r of an instruction in Q, we create a new defined function letter which is n-placed. If F is a defined function letter in P for a procedure with m formal parameters and k local variables, we create a new m-placed defined function letter F- for 1 <. I < m and an

Suppose F is a procedure symbol in P defined by a procedure Qp with formal parameters y, ..., y and local variables ym+p,... ... [Pg.267]

Let PR be the class of recursion augmented schemes defined in Section D of Chapter VII. Constable and Gries define a slightly different class P R using an alternative method of parameter passing. A scheme in P R contains a main scheme and procedure definitions. In this case, a procedure definition Qp contains at the start, in addition to a statement of formal parameters and local variables, a statement EETURN(z) where z is a new variable, the output variable, which can also appear in the instructions and calls of Qp. A call has the form v F(Up,...,un). If procedure Qp has formal parameters Xp,...,x, and output variable z, then the scheme executes as if call v F(Up,..., un) were replaced by... [Pg.351]

In the preceding and the earlier expressions, session-5, ibm, and 1999/7/23 are names that refer to specific objects—only names of objects can start off navigation expressions startDate, instructor, course, and client are attributes—they occur to the right of the dot. Usually the names that refer to objects are variable names, such as formally named parameters to actions or local variables, and constants, such as 1999/7/23, A, and 15. We build navigation expressions from names and attributes. [Pg.78]

An ordinary parameter refers to an object an out parameter refers to an attribute, which might be as simple as a local variable of the caller. An out parameter can therefore be used to specify that a different object is now referred to by the bound attribute an ordinary parameter can only change the state of the object it refers to. [Pg.160]

Local variables. Variables used to refer to temporary values within a method... [Pg.170]

Note that the effect is defined almost completely in terms of attributes of the retailer rather than by parameters that would otherwise be unrelated to retailer attributes. Some of these attributes may even correspond to local variables within the retailer s implementation, in which the product, quantity, and payment due are stored after step 4. The particular set of items transferred has been modeled as an output because the specific items can be determined by the wholesaler in ways not specified here, provided they are of the right product and quantity. [Pg.189]

The choice of types for a local variable—temporaries, inputs, and even return values— for an operation is crucial to good decoupling. As soon as you declare a variable or parameter that belongs to a particular class, you have made your part of the program dependent on that class. This means that any changes there may have an impact here. Instead, it is usually better to declare all variables as types, the only place in a program where you absolutely must refer to a concrete class is to instantiate a new object. [Pg.289]

The data show a wide range the values in Columns B and C are relatively high, while those in Column E are relatively low. The authors suggested that these variations may reflect irregularities in the spray application of the pesticide. A second, more local, variability was attributed to incomplete mixing of the soil after the spray application. The result is a large value for the overall standard deviation, 166 mg per square meter. [Pg.16]

Locally, fog deposition can account for a significant proportion of the total volume of precipitation (e.g. [23, 24]). Yet a high local variability in fog deposition characteristics must be assumed, particularly in the alpine region. Hence the water balance in larger alpine catchments is only slightly distorted if fog deposition is not taken into consideration [5]. [Pg.25]

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