Note that in (2.65) w is described as a linear combination of the training vector. In a sense, the complexity of a function s representation by SVs is independent of the dimensionality of the input space X, and depends only on the number of SVs. [Pg.48]

We also note that the vector or tensor responses (3.187), (3.189) depend only on the vector or tensor driving forces respectively. This fact is known in linear irreversible thermodynamics as the Curie principle [36, 80, 88, 89] (cf. discussion in [34, 38]). Present theory shows however, that this property follows from the isotropy of constitutive functions and from the representation theorems of such linear functions, see Appendix A.2, Eqs.(A.ll)-(A.13) and (A.57)-(A.59). But representation theorems for nonlinear isotropic constitutive functions [64, 65] show that the Curie principle is not valid generally. [Pg.121]

Here mx is the column vector of the localized material property function m/,. d is the column vector of the field data, and G is the matrix representation of the corresponding linear operator Gxj or G/x- [Pg.307]

From the principle of objectivity it follows that functions q and T/v must be isotropic (3.176), (3.177). In the linear case the most general form of such isotropic functions is given by the representation theorem (see Appendix A.2) of vector and tensor functions (3.172), (3.162) which are linear in vectors and tensors (cf. (A.58), (A.68)) [Pg.117]

In Section 4.4 we saw how to build a representation from the action of a group on a set the new representation space is a space of functions. In this section, we apply this idea to linear functions on a vector space of a representation to define the dual representation. [Pg.164]

Complementary to these radial linear combinations, we can construct pairs of local functions of 7t and 8 types and so on, with angular momentum quantum numbers (X) about the radius vectors of 1 for tt, 2 for 5, 3 for (/>,... upon which the higher order representations and characters can be constructed. [Pg.69]

The translational motion corresponds to a displacement of the molecule as a whole in an arbitrary direction it can be depicted by a single vector showing the displacement of the center of mass. Let this vector have components x,y,z. We showed in Section 9.3 that under any symmetry operation, each of the functions x,y,z is transformed into a linear combination of x,y, and z. Hence (Section 9.6) the set of functions x,y,z forms a basis for some three-dimensional representation of the molecular point group we shall call this representation rtran8. [The representation (9.25) is [Pg.471]

Projection operators are a technique for constructing linear combinations of basis functions that transform according to irreducible representations of a group. Projection operators can be used to form molecular orbitals from a basis set of atomic orbitals, or to form normal modes of vibration from a basis of displacement vectors. With projection operators we can revisit a number of topics considered previously but which can now be treated in a uniform way. [Pg.110]

Therefore, Eqs. (A.57)-(A.59), (A.67)-(A.69) express the representation theorems of isotropic vector, scalar, and tensor (even symmetric or skew-symmetric) functions linear in vectors and (possibly symmetric or skew-symmetric) tensors. Of course, special cases of these representations follow, e.g., (A.68) is a representation theorem of the isotropic symmetric tensor function linear in symmetric tensors (this was used in Sects. 3.7,4.5) or (A.34) is a special case of (A.59) as was noted above, etc. [Pg.292]

It is necessary to associate mathematical quantities with each type of momentum transfer rate process that is contained in the vector force balance. The fluid momentum vector is expressed as p, which is equivalent to the overall mass flux vector. This is actually the momentum per unit volume of fluid because mass is replaced by density in the vectorial representation of fluid momentum. Mass is an extrinsic property that is typically a linear function of the size of the system. In this respect, mv is a fluid momentum vector that changes magnitude when the mass of the system increases or decreases. This change in fluid momentum is not as important as the change that occurs when the velocity vector is affected. On the other hand, fluid density is an intrinsic property, which means that it is independent of the size of the system. Hence, pv is the momentum vector per unit volume of fluid that is not affected when the system mass increases or decreases. The total fluid momentum within an arbitrarily chosen control volume V is [Pg.159]

Proof. We shall use the description of (C2) in terms of matrices given in Theorem 1.14. Suppose Z is a T-invariant O-dimensional subscheme in (C2), and corresponds to a triple of matrices (Bi, B2, i). Recall that it is given as follows Define a iV-dimensional vector space V as H°(Oz), and a 1-dimensional vector space W. Then the multiplications of coordinate functions z, z2 6 C define endomorphisms Bi, B2. The natural map Oc2 —> Oz defines a linear map i W V. Prom this construction, V is a T-module, and W is the trivial T-module. The pair (Bi,B2) is T-equivariant, if it is considered as an element in Hom(V, Q V), where Q is 2-dimensional representation given by the inclusion T C SU(2). (This follows from that (Zi,z2) is an element in Q.) And i is also a T-equi variant homomorphism W —> V. [Pg.43]

Proposition 6.11 implies that irreducible representations are the identifiable basic building blocks of all finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. These results can be generalized to infinite-dimensional representations of compact groups. The main difficulty is not with the representation theory, but rather with linear operators on infinite-dimensional vector spaces. Readers interested in the mathematical details ( dense subspaces and so on) should consult a book on functional analysis, such as Reed and Simon [RS], [Pg.198]

Maths for Chemists Volume II Power Series, Complex Numbers and Linear Algebra builds on the foundations laid in Volume I, and goes on to develop more advanced material. The topics covered include power series, which are used to formulate alternative representations of functions and are important in model building in chemistry complex numbers and complex functions, which appear in quantum chemistry, spectroscopy and crystallography matrices and determinants used in the solution of sets of simultaneous linear equations and in the representation of geometrical transformations used to describe molecular symmetry characteristics and vectors which allow the description of directional properties of molecules. [Pg.133]

Character tables enable the IR activity of a particular vibration of a molecule in a free state to be determined from its symmetry, that is, those vibrations that transform as the linear functions x, y, z are formally IR active. Thus vibrations that transform as the Ai, Bi, and B2 irreducible representations are allowed for a system with C2V symmetry, while vibrations transforming as Ai and E irreducible representations are allowed for a system with C y symmetry. Similarly, Raman-active vibrations can be determined by the behavior of the quartic functions, while the rotational motions are represented by R, Ry, and R. For a molecule adsorbed at a metal surface, this general IR selection rule becomes restricted and only the totally symmetric vibrations are now allowed. Thus, for an adsorbed system setup with the z vector normal to the surface, only those vibrations that transform as the totally symmetric linear vector z are allowed. [Pg.314]

© 2019 chempedia.info