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** Hybridization of 5 and p Orbitals **

** Hybridization of and d Orbitals **

Some hybrid orbitals containing s, p, and d orbitals are listed in Table 5,2. The structural aspects of various hybrid orbitals will be discussed in Chapter 6, but the bond angles between orbitals of a given hybridization are also listed in Table 5.2 for reference. [Pg.88]

Polyhedra with six coplanar vertices cannot be formed from hybrids using only s, p, and d orbitals. The smallest such polyhedron is the seven-vertex hexagonal pyramid, which requires the/(v(jr - 3y )) orbital with six major lobes pointed toward the vertex of a hexagon (Table 2). [Pg.354]

Hybrid orbitals are atomic orbitals formed by combinations of s, p, and d atomic orbitals, and are useful in describing the bonding in compounds. There are various types. In carbon, for instance, the electron configuration is Is 2s 2p. Carbon, in its outer (valence) shell, has one [Pg.198]

We now use a Pauling-like approach to show how hybrid orbitals for a variety of combinations of s, p, and d orbitals may be formulated.10 We assume that the radial dependences of the s, p, d orbitals are similar so that they can be neglected. The angular parts of the orbital wavefunctions are given by the following expressions (in the usual spherical coordinates 9, ) [Pg.372]

Table 8.7 shows the variety of hybrid orbitals that can be constructed from various combinations of s, p, and d orbitals, the shapes of the molecules that result, and selected examples. [Pg.349]

The most common—and perhaps most important—hybrid orbitals are the tetrahdral ones formed by adding one s-, and three p- type orbitals. These can be arranged to form various crystal structures diamond, zincblende, and wurtzite. Combinations of the s-, p-, and d- orbitals allow 48 possible symmetries (Kimball, 1940). [Pg.67]

Recall that the VB concept of hybridization proposes mixing particular combinations of s, p, and d orbitals to obtain sets of hybrid orbitals, which have specific geometries. For coordination compounds, the model proposes that the type of metalion orbital hybridization determines the geometry of the complex ion. Let s discuss orbital combinations that lead to octahedral, square planar, and tetrahedral geometries. [Pg.750]

The hybrid orbital type d2sp3 refers to a case in which the d orbitals have a smaller principal quantum number than that of the s and p orbitals (e.g., 3d combined with 4s and 4p orbitals). The sp3d2 hybrid orbital type indicates a case where the s, p, and d orbitals all have the same principal quantum number (e.g., 4s, 4p, and 4d orbitals) in accord with the natural order of filling atomic orbitals having a given principle quantum number. Some of the possible hybrid orbital combinations will now be illustrated for complexes of first-row transition metals. [Pg.458]

The exact details of the bonding mechanisms in these ceramics are still controversial, and several different approaches to explain the wide range of observed properties have been suggested. One common feature to all the proposed mechanisms is that of orbital hybridization. Hybridization of the s, p, and d orbitals of the transition metal as well as hybridization of the s and p orbitals of the nonmetal has been proposed. [Pg.63]

Since most covalent bonds are formed from hybridized orbitals, their directional characteristics are different from those of the atomic orbitals that comprise the hybrid. Deciding the directional characteristics for the most stable bonds formed from a given set of orbitals is a wave mechanical task for most chemists it is easier to accept the results than to learn how to do the calculations. The chemical physicist G. E. Kimball, however, has worked out the spatial arrangements for over forty sets of bonds that presumably can be formed from different combinations of s, p, and d orbitals. Only about eight of these types occur frequently a few of the combinations occur only in exceptional cases many have not as yet been observed. These bond types are most frequently classed according to the coordination number of the central atom. [Pg.64]

In the models of chemical bonding we have discussed up to now, we have assumed that the electrons that interpose themselves between adjacent nuclei (the bonding electrons ) are in orbitals associated with one or the other of the parent atoms. In the simple Lewis and VSEPR models, these were just the ordinary s, p, and d orbitals. The more sophisticated hybridization model recognized that these orbitals will be modified by the interaction with other atoms, and the concept of mixed (hybrid) orbitals was introduced. [Pg.54]

In valence bond theory, hybridized atomic orbitals are formed by the combination and rearrangement of orbitals of the same atom. The hybridized orbitals are all of equal energy and electron density, and the number of hybridized orbitals is equal to the number of pure atomic orbitals that combine. Valence-sheU expansion can be explained by assuming hybridization of s,p, and d orbitals. [Pg.349]

** Hybridization of 5 and p Orbitals **

** Hybridization of and d Orbitals **

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