The basic operation in most of the following schemes is modular multiplication. (Elliptic curve arithmetic, on which some of the schemes could be based instead, is not described here see, e.g., Kobl87].) It is assumed that is represented by the numbers 0,. .., n-1. A modular multiplication can be computed with one multiplication and one division. A multiplication of /-bit numbers on a machine with word length w can easily be performed with fZ/vvl word multiplications. Division takes a small number of word multiplications more. [Pg.228]

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