BE of the elanent Z with concentration is fz Xz- Eor example, BE of the graphite control rod used in nuclear reactors is defined as the sum of BEs for aU impmities including boron B itself, but excluding carbon C, which is not implied to be an impurity in graphite. [Pg.53]

These facts suggest that the inversion is associated with the change of the optical property of the substances contacted with solvent. Optical rotation [a] or rotivity fZ defined by Equation (2) is examined. [Pg.325]

The emitted light is detected along y through a polarizer oriented either along z (Fz) or along x (Fx). In fluorescence polarization studies with continuous excitation (steady-state experiments), the emission anisotropy r and the emission polarization p are defined in eqs 8a and 8b. [Pg.705]

These energies are easily associated with the four energy levels in Fig. 6.2 in our qualitative discussion of the AX system. The four allowed transitions, which are also shown in Fig. 6.2, correspond to the selection rule AFz = 1. (Fz was defined in Eq. 6.2.) The origin of this selection rule will be taken up later. It is clear from the expressions in Eq. 6.17 that each observed line results from two transitions with precisely the same frequency, just as depicted qualitatively in Fig. 6.2. [Pg.150]

A second variant of the ABC system occurs when the chemical shift of one nucleus differs substantially from that of the other two — an ABX system. The presence of one nucleus only weakly coupled to the others permits factoring of the secular equation so that algebraic solutions are possible. The basis functions for the ABX system are just those shown in Table 6.3 for the general three-spin system. However, because (vA — vx) and (vB — vx) are much larger than Jax and /BX, we can define an Fz for the AB nuclei separately from Fz for the [Pg.165]

The main transport parameters to be estimated are the mass transfer coefficients (gas-liquid (liquid side) fc , gas-liquid (gas side) kg, and liquid-solid fc )). Coupled to that is the estimation of the interfacial area per unit volume a, and often it is the combination (i.e., kia or kgO) that is estimated in a certain experimental procedure. Thermodynamic parameters, such as Henry s law constant (fZ) can be estimated in a simpler manner since their estimation on the flow or on any time-dependent phenomenon. Mass transfer coefticients may be evaluated in well-defined geometries with known flow fields using classical theories like film theory, penetration theory, surface renewal [Pg.145]

The system comprising the differential equation for the concentration distribution (Eq. 6.2.5), and the initial and boundary conditions (Eqs. 6.2.3, 6.2.7, and 6.2.8) is essentially the same as that for the concentration profile development in a reverse osmosis channel treated in Section 4.4. There, illz F of Eq. (6.2.7) is replaced by u, c. The current density / is simply Fz+j+, so the boundary conditions are indeed essentially the same, whence we may expect the solution behavior to be the same. For the present problem, however, the current is coupled to the equation for the potential, and it is therefore defined by the applied voltage. [Pg.376]

Although the obvious purpose of separation processes is to raise or lower the concentration of certain components to certain levels, another factor must be considered and that is the recovery of those components. Thus, the amount of a product as well as its purity is of concern to the process engineer. The concentration, commonly expressed as mole fraction of the components of interest, X or T , is a measure of quality, while the total product rate or component recovery is a measure of quantity. The recovery of a component or group of components is defined as the fraction or percentage of these components in the feed that are recovered in a given product. If, for instance, the mole fraction of component i in the feed to a flash drum is Z and its mole fraction in the vapor product is T , the amount of i in the feed is FZ and in the vapor product is where F is the molar feed rate and t / is the vapor mole fraction. The recovery of component i in the vapor product is, therefore. [Pg.83]

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