In the Ewald construction (Figure 3.17), a circle with a radius proportional to 1/A and centered at C, called the Ewald circle, is drawn. In three dimensions it is referred to as the Ewald sphere or the sphere of reflection. The reciprocal lattice, drawn on the same scale as that of the Ewald sphere, is then placed with its origin centered at 0. The crystal, centered at C, can be physically oriented so that the required reciprocal lattice point can be made to intersect the surface of the Ewald sphere. [Pg.97]

Fig. 3 Ewald construction. The white half-circle indicates the Ewald sphere in two dimensions. The points of intersection between the reciprocal lattice rods and the Ewald sphere form the set of reciprocal lattice points (bright) which obey Bragg s law and appear as diffraction spots in the diffraction pattern. Zero-, first- and second-order Laue zone are indicated. Eor electron diffraction in TEM, the ratio between the radius of the Ewald sphere and the reciprocal lattice unit is larger than visualized in the figure. (View this art in color at www.dekker. com.) |

Figure 2. Ewald construction for X-ray (soUd sphere) and electron (dotted sphere). ( kO, k wave-vectors, X - wave-length, a, b - parameters of reciprocal unit cell). |

Figure 7.9 Ewald constructions, (a) at the Bragg condition, (b) off the Bragg condition |

Figure A.5 Ewald construction for surface diffraction, a) a side view of the reciprocal lattice at the surface. Constructive interference occurs for all intersection points of the vertical rods with the Ewald sphere. This is equivalent to the condition when the component qj of the scattering vector parallel to the surface is identical to a reciprocal lattice vector of the surface lattice, b) the top view of the reciprocal surface lattice. The circle is the projection of the Ewald sphere. If we disregarding the radiation scattered into the crystal, the number of lattice points within the circle (corresponding to the intersections of the rods with the Ewald sphere) is identical to the maximum number of observed diffraction peaks. |

Figure A.6 Ewald construction for surface diffraction at the Cu(l 10) surface. |

Figure 12 The Ewald construction drawn for the reflection (-2 2 0). The crystal is located at the origin O and the endpoint of the vector s lies at a lattice point of the reciprocal lattice (gray). The radius of the circle is A 1. |

Fig. Al-8 The Ewald construction. Section through the sphere of reflection containing the incident and diffracted beam vectors. |

Figure A.4 The Ewald construction. Given an incident wave vector ki, a sphere of radius k, is drawn around the end point of kz. Diffraction peaks are observed only if the scattering vector q ends on this sphere. |

Figure 6.2 The Ewald construction (a) the reciprocal lattice (b) a vector of length /X, dawn parallel to the beam direction (c) a sphere passing through the 000 reflection, drawn using the vector in (b) as radius (d) the positions of the diffracted beams |

Figure 6.3 The geometry of the Ewald construction, showing it to be identical to Bragg s law |

The formalism of the reciprocal lattice and the Ewald construction can be applied to the diffraction at surfaces. As an example, we consider how the diffraction pattern of a LEED experiment (see Fig. 8.21) results from the surface structure. The most simple case is an experiment where the electron beam hits the crystal surface perpendicularly as shown in Fig. A.5. Since we do not have a Laue condition to fulfill in the direction normal to the surface, we get rods vertical to the surface instead of single points. All intersecting points between these rods and the Ewald sphere will lead to diffraction peaks. Therefore, we always observe diffraction [Pg.325]

Evaporated surfaces, dislocations on, 19 331 Evolution, of catalysts, extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies in, 35 101 Ewald constructions, 21 174, 175 EXAFS, see Extended X-ray absorption fine structure [Pg.103]

In other words, diffraction occurs whenever the scattering vector h equals a reciprocal lattice vector Yihki- This powerful result is visualized in the useful Ewald construction that is described below. [Pg.10]

Figure 6.5 Comparison of real space and reciprocal space formation of diffraction patterns (a) schematic formation of a diffraction pattern in an electron microscope (b) the Ewald construction of a diffraction pattern |

Before we can measure the intensity of a Bragg reflection, we need to determine where and from what direction to orient the X-ray detector. A geometrical description of diffraction, the Ewald sphere, allows us to calculate which Bragg reflections will be formed if we know the orientation of the crystal with respect to the incidentX-ray beam. In the Ewald construction (shown in two dimensions in Fig. 11), a sphere of radius 1/X is drawn with the crystal at its center and the reciprocal lattice on its surface. A Bragg reflection is produced when a reciprocal lattice point touches the surface of the Ewald sphere. As the orientation of the crystal is changed, so is the orientation of its reciprocal lattice. [Pg.15]

We can see the diffraction pattern with our own eyes when we collect X-ray data because we obtain the image, the pattern of diffraction spots, on the face of our detector or film. We can t directly see the families of planes in the actual crystal, but we know, through the Ewald construction, how the diffraction pattern is related to the crystal orientation, and hence to the dispositions of the planes that pass through it. We also know from Ewald how to move the crystal about its center, once we know its orientation with respect to our laboratory coordinate system, in order to illuminate various parts of reciprocal space. In data collection we watch the diffraction pattern, not the crystal, and let the pattern of intensities guide us. [Pg.151]

As stated in Sec. 3-6, when monochromatic radiation is incident on a single crystal rotated about one of its axes, the reflected beams lie on the surface of imaginary cones coaxial with the rotation axis. The way in which this reflection occurs may be shown very nicely by the Ewald construction. Suppose a simple cubic crystal is rotated about the axis [001]. This is equivalent to rotation of the reciprocal lattice about the bs axis. Figure A1-9 shows a portion of the reciprocal lattice oriented in this manner, together with the adjacent sphere of reflection. [Pg.489]

From Equation (2), we deduce that diffraction is observed only when the indices h, k, l in d take integral values. These reciprocal space vectors form a lattice, the reciprocal lattice, and the mathematical relationship between the real and reciprocal lattices (and between other aspects of the diffraction pattern) is a FT, as we will explain below. The interpretation of the Ewald construction is that diffraction is observed when the scattering vector s-s0 is equal to a reciprocal space vector A bki with integral indices h, k, l. This occurs whenever such a [Pg.59]

So how do we know the unit cell of the crystal and its orientation The first step in the collection of crystallographic data consists of taking one or two test images, from which the spot positions are determined. Each diffraction spot is then assigned indices h,k,l based on its position on the detector. This is called indexing and the unit cell parameters and crystal orientation are determined here. Once the diffraction pattern is indexed, we can use the Ewald construction to predict where spots should be observed. The prediction is important, since some of the spots may be so faint that detection would be impossible unless we knew where to expect them. [Pg.66]

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