To estimate the kinetic parameters of isomerization for aromatic compounds under a small extent of protonation and an excess of acidic agent one can assume for a first approximation that [Pg.175]

Parameter Estimation. The kinetic parameters of the model given above that must be estimated for model identification include kg, g, Eg, kb, b, Eb,j. Parameter estimation for this type of model is quite difficult because the parameters appear nonlinearly, the nucleation rate parameters enter only in the boundary condition, and availability of accurate data is limited. Certainly a model that describes the behavior of a nonisothermally operated crystallizer is needed if the temperature is to be manipulated, but there have been only a few studies of the effect of temperature on crystallization processes (Kelt and Larson 1977 Randolph and Cise 1972 Rousseau and Woo 1980). For isothermal crystallization, the terms involving Eg and Eh are absorbed into kg and kb, and only kg, g, kb, b, and i need to be estimated. [Pg.222]

V. Processing of the Experimental Data to Estimate the Kinetic Parameters of Desorption. 372 [Pg.343]

Chapter VII discusses the three main methods for estimating the kinetic parameters of elementary reactions collision theory, thermochemical kinetics, structure-reactivity correlations. [Pg.153]

Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters can also be estimated by running a series of steady-state CSTR runs with various flow rates and plotting Cs versus (Cst)/(CSq- Cs). Another approach is to use the Langmuir plot (Csr vs Cs) after calculating the reaction rate at different flow rates. The reaction rate can be calculated from the relationship r = F (CSq - Cs)/V. However, the initial rate approach described in Section 2.2.4 is a better way to estimate the kinetic parameters than this method because steady-state CSTR runs are much more difficult to make than batch runs. [Pg.31]

Ranzi et al. [50] have adopted a rather different approach to estimating the kinetic parameters for H-abstraction from hydrocarbon compounds. For the reaction of a radical, R, with a compound, R H, the rate constant is expressed as [Pg.280]

In general, previous experimental values and computational data can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters needed for a KMC-based simulation. These parameters may be improved and adjusted after KMC simulation, if an initially identified reaction mechanism is shown to be insufficient to capture the experimental behavior. Most importantly, the DFT+KMC multiscale simulation approach establishes a well-defined pathway for taking atomistic-level details and reaching lab-level experimental results, which can be used to accelerate the discovery process and enhance engineering design. [Pg.211]

The rather complex issue of chemical kinetics has been discussed in a quantitative way, in order to stress out two main ideas, namely, the necessity of resorting to simplified kinetic models and the need of adequate methods of data analysis to estimate the kinetic parameters. These results introduce Chap. 3, in which basic concepts and up-to-date methods of identification of kinetic parameters are presented. [Pg.37]

Simple, graphical methods for testing the fit of rate data to Equation 9 and for estimating the kinetic parameters k2 and KR involve using linearized forms of Equation 9. By far the most widely used linear form is that of Kitz and Wilson (14). Taking reciprocals of both sides of Equation 9, we obtain [Pg.272]

Microsome preparations from the livers of rats gavaged with coal tar creosote were used to assay the activities of two glucuronosyltransferases, 1-hydroxypyrene UGT and />nitrophcnol UGT, and to estimate the kinetic parameters of the two enzymes (Luukanen et al. 1997). Pretreatment with creosote increased the ratio of V /K by 18-fold for 1-hydroxypyrene UGT and by 2-3-fold for/ -nitrophenol, suggesting that a highly efficient form of glucuronosyltransferase was selectively induced by creosote. [Pg.177]

The relatively simple form of the rate law in the Power-Law Formalism has several important implications for the characterization of the molecular elements of the system. In particular, there are known methods for estimating the kinetic parameters and the amount of data required for the estimation is minimal. [Pg.127]

First, the detailed model is used to simulate the behavior of the real system, and a set of simulated isothermal experimental data is generated including the total heat released by reaction. Then, these data are used to estimate the kinetic parameters of the reduced models and the heats of reaction of the lumped reactions. Finally, the reduced kinetic models are tested in a validation procedure which simulates the operation of a batch reactor and allows one to identify the best reduced model. [Pg.56]

Only a few studies have tackled the problem of deriving a detailed kinetic model of the phenol-formaldehyde reactive system, mainly because of its complexity. In recent years, a generalized procedure has been reported in [11,14] that allows one to build a detailed model for the synthesis of resol-type phenolic resins. This procedure is based on a group contribution method and virtually allows one to estimate the kinetic parameters of every possible reaction taking place in the system. [Pg.24]

Mayo-Lewis Binary Copolymeriration Model. In this exeimple we consider the Mayo-Lewis model for describing binary copolymerization. The procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters expressed as reactivity ratios from composition data is discussed in detail in our earlier paper (1 ). Here diad fractions, which are the relative numbers of MjMj, MiMj, M Mj and MjMj sequences as measured by NMR are used. NMR, while extremely useful, cannot distinguish between MiM and M Mi sequences and [Pg.283]

The same pyrolysis conditions can be achieved with a moving piece of wood pressed upon a fixed heated surface. In that case, it is easy to measure the necessary time too of decomposition of the liquids left behind the wood on the surface. Figure 6 reports the linear variations of the experimental values of 1/too (pseudo first order kinetic constant) as a function of 1/T. Assuming that the liquids are rapidly heated to surface temperature before decomposition it is possible to estimate the kinetic parameters of the reaction of liquids decomposition A = 2.7 X 1Q7 s and E = 116 kJ. Compared to the parameters used in Diebold kinetic model (14) the experimental points could represent the two possible processes "Active primary vapors or "Active" char. [Pg.71]

A plot of In Vi as a function of In Xj, while all other X s are held constant at their nominal values in situ, yields a straight line whose slope determines the exponential parameter g,[. Given that there will always be a certain amount of experimental error associated with each assay, it will in general require about 10 data points to obtain a reasonably good estimate of the slope. Thus, we can conclude that 0n assays will be needed to estimate the kinetic parameters of the rate law in the Power-Law Formalism when there are n variables that influence the rate law under consideration. [Pg.127]

Thus, the decomposition kinetics of carbonates are in full agreement with the theoretical concepts based on the CDV mechanism. The analysis shows that long-term discussions concerning the decomposition mechanism and the influence of the experimental conditions (in particular, the presence of CO2) on the reaction rate, initiated 70 years ago in a well-known paper by Zawadzki and Bretsznajder [114] and continuing up to now [108], are chiefly associated with the fundamental limitations of the Arrhenius plot and second-law methods used for estimating the kinetic parameters. [Pg.218]

Most often, the primary experimental desorption data [[mainly the P(t) or P(T) function] represent, after due corrections, the temperature dependence of the desorption rate, —dnjdt = Nt vs T. The resulting curves exhibit peaks and their most reliable point is the maximum at the temperature Tm, corresponding to the maximum desorption rate Nm. Its location on the temperature scale under various conditions is essential for estimating the kinetic parameters of the desorption process. [Pg.367]

An accurate measurement of the concentration of the solute in the continuous phase can be obtained by sampling and evaporating to dryness, but this is, of course, prohibitively time-consuming for control purposes. There are several methods for the rapid measurement of continuous-phase concentration. The measurement of refractive index has been shown to provide quick and accurate concentration determination (Kelt and Larson 1977 Mullin and Leci 1972 Sikdar and Randolph 1976). Garside and Mullin (1966) suggested the use of an on-line densitometer to determine solution concentration, and Witkowski (1990) successfully used densitometry for concentration measurements to estimate the kinetic parameters of an isothermal crystallizer. It should [Pg.202]

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