Remark 7.1. The energy flow rates Hi. .. 77/v-i C cu1 are typically functions of the flow rates of (internal) material streams and cannot be set independently. In order to preserve the simplicity of the presentation, this dependence has not been explicitly accounted for the results presented thus far are, however, independent of this consideration. It is also intuitive that the following statements apply. [Pg.179]

First we establish an energy flow rate balance according to Eq. (7.6). To illustrate the method of equivalent electric diagrams, we shall use the electric analog here. The network (see Figure 7.16) has two junctions, S and C. The sum of all currents at a junction is zero (KirchhofFs law) consequently. [Pg.179]

Likewise, the hydraulic energy flow rate associated with the volumetric current, Iv, is [Pg.5]

Substituting for vx from equation 2.40, the kinetic energy flow rate is [Pg.88]

Irradiance, or the instantaneous density of radiant flux (energy flow rate or power density), in watts per square meter (W/m ). The term intensity is often (but erroneously) used to mean this quantity. [Pg.220]

The average kinetic energy per unit mass can also be found as for laminar flow. The kinetic energy flow rate is given by [Pg.88]

Assuming that the diffuse radiation is isotropic, the density of energy flow rate from incident solar radiation for a collector in a given location can be calculated from the following equation [37,43,56,84-89] [Pg.322]

The rhf mass flow rate in the collectors of indirect system dryers can be chosen, within certain limits. However, % is interdependent with the thermal efficiency rj of the collector. After clearing up the necessary energy flow rate to be utilized in the collector, the required collector surface must be determined. On the basis of utilized (f) heat flow rate and the energy flux of the incident radiation (energy flow rate per surface unit irradiance), the efficiency of the collector can be expressed as [Pg.319]

Fig. 1. Light harvesting complex LH2 from Rps. acidophila. a) Absorption spectrum, b) Standard model of the energy flow rates upon excitation of Car S2 [3]. |

For a definite period, the so-called long-term efficiency of the collector can be expressed with the time integral of utilized and input energy flow rates [Pg.319]

Equation 2.37 is valid for any symmetric velocity profile. In the case of laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, the velocity profile is given by equation 1.67, so the kinetic energy flow rate is found as [Pg.86]

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