This result can also be derived by equating the shear stress for a Newtonian fluid, Eq. (6-9), to the expression obtained from the momentum balance for tube flow, Eq. (6-4), and integrating to obtain the velocity profile [Pg.154]

Inserting this into Eq. (6-6) and integrating over the tube cross section gives Eq. (6-11) for the volumetric flow rate. [Pg.154]

Another approach is to use the Bernoulli equation [Eq. (6-2)] and Eq. (6-8) for the friction loss term e(. The integral in the latter equation is evaluated in a manner similar to that leading to Eq. (6-10) as follows. Eliminating ef between Eq. (6-8) and the Bernoulli equation [Eq. (6-2), i.e., pet = — A t ] leads directly to [Pg.154]

If the wall stress (rw) in Eq. (6-11) is expressed in terms of the Fanning friction factor (i.e., tw = /pF2/2) and the result solved for/, the dimensionless form of the Hagen-Poiseuille equation results [Pg.154]

We are now ready to tackle the problem of damping. We have demonstrated the equivalence of the fluctuation approach and the oscillator model in Sections 3.1-3.3, provided that the poles of the molecular [Pg.40]

In order to describe damping correctly, we replace each damped oscillator i by an infinite ensemble of undamped oscillators k in such a manner that the imaginary part of the susceptibility of the ensemble equals that of oscillator i. For real frequencies we find that of undamped oscillator k is a -function with an eigenfrequency minus the same -function with —01, [Pg.41]

we obtain the real part zi(oj) of the susceptibility of oscillator k from the Kramers-Kronig relations [Pg.41]

Interchanging the order of integration in the second term and the variables a and we get [Pg.42]

We no longer need to take the principal value of the integral, as it has no pole at = 4, is well-defined, no problems arise when and [Pg.43]

In other words, if we look at any phase-space volume element, the rate of incoming state points should equal the rate of outflow. This requires that be a fiinction of the constants of the motion, and especially Q=Q i). Equilibrium also implies d(/)/dt = 0 for any /. The extension of the above equations to nonequilibriiim ensembles requires a consideration of entropy production, the method of controlling energy dissipation (diennostatting) and the consequent non-Liouville nature of the time evolution [35]. [Pg.2249]

S-S annihilation phenomena can be considered as a powerful tool for investigating tire exciton dynamics in molecular complexes [26]. However, in systems where tliat is not tire objective it can be a complication one would prefer to avoid. To tliis end, a measure of suitably conservative excitation conditions is to have tire parameter a< )T < 0.01. Here x is tire effective rate of intrinsic energy dissipation in tire ensemble if tire excitation is by CW light, and T = IS tire... [Pg.3023]

Similarly, the rate of energy dissipation in Eq. (2.6) has units energy volume time, so the dimensions of that equation are... [Pg.80]

In connection with Eq. (2.6), we used the fact that the product of a viscous force and a velocity gives a rate of energy dissipation, so F j v j + Fy j Vy j equals the rate of energy dissipation by segment i. Thus the energy loss per second for the ith segment (AW/At)j is... [Pg.110]

For a polymer molecule consisting of n segments, this result must be summed over all the segments in the molecule to give the energy dissipated per second per polymer molecule (AW/At)p ... [Pg.111]

Figure 2.1 served as the basis for our initial analysis of viscosity, and we return to this representation now with the stipulation that the volume of fluid sandwiched between the two plates is a unit of volume. This unit is defined by a unit of contact area with the walls and a unit of separation between the two walls. Next we consider a shearing force acting on this cube of fluid to induce a unit velocity gradient. According to Eq. (2.6), the rate of energy dissipation per unit volume from viscous forces dW/dt is proportional to the square of the velocity gradient, with t]q (pure liquid, subscript 0) the factor of proportionality ... [Pg.587]

Thus, to maintain a unit gradient, a volume rate of energy dissipation equal to 77o is required. [Pg.587]

Now we return to consider the energy that must be dissipated in a unit volume of suspension to produce a unit gradient, as we did above with the pure solvent. The same fraction applied to the shearing force will produce the unit gradient, and the same fraction also describes the volume rate of energy dissipation compared to the situation described above for pure solvent. Since the latter was Po, we write for the suspension, in the case of dv/dy = 1,... [Pg.588]

This is only one of the contributions to the total volume rate of energy dissipation a second term which arises from explicit consideration of the individual spheres must also be taken into account. This second effect can be shown to equal 1.5

An alternative point of view assumes that each repeat unit of the polymer chain offers hydrodynamic resistance to the flow such that f-the friction factor per repeat unit-is applicable to each of the n units. This situation is called the free-draining coil. The free-draining coil is the model upon which the Debye viscosity equation is based in Chap. 2. Accordingly, we use Eq. (2.53) to give the contribution of a single polymer chain to the rate of energy dissipation ... [Pg.610]

In this equation, represents the rate of energy dissipation per unit mass of fluid. In pulsed and reciprocating plate columns the dimensionless proportionahty constant K in equation 38 is on the order of 0.3. In stirred tanks, the proportionaUty constant has been reported as 0.024(1 + 2.5 h) in the holdup range 0 to 0.35 (67). The increase of drop si2e with holdup is attributed to the increasing tendency for coalescence between drops as the concentration of drops increases. A detailed survey of drop si2e correlations is given by the Hterature (65). [Pg.69]

The pulsed-plate column is typically fitted with hori2ontal perforated plates or sieve plates which occupy the entire cross section of the column. The total free area of the plate is about 20—25%. The columns ate generally operated at frequencies of 1.5 to 4 H2 with ampHtudes 0.63 to 2.5 cm. The energy dissipated by the pulsations increases both the turbulence and the interfacial areas and greatly improves the mass-transfer efficiency compared to that of an unpulsed column. Pulsed-plate columns in diameters of up to 1.0 m or mote ate widely used in the nuclear industry (139,140). [Pg.75]

The turbulent kinetic energy is calculated from equation 41. Equation 43 defines the rate of energy dissipation, S, which is related to the length scale via... [Pg.102]

The dissipation factor (the ratio of the energy dissipated to the energy stored per cycle) is affected by the frequency, temperature, crystallinity, and void content of the fabricated stmcture. At certain temperatures and frequencies, the crystalline and amorphous regions become resonant. Because of the molecular vibrations, appHed electrical energy is lost by internal friction within the polymer which results in an increase in the dissipation factor. The dissipation factor peaks for these resins correspond to well-defined transitions, but the magnitude of the variation is minor as compared to other polymers. The low temperature transition at —97° C causes the only meaningful dissipation factor peak. The dissipation factor has a maximum of 10 —10 Hz at RT at high crystallinity (93%) the peak at 10 —10 Hz is absent. [Pg.353]

The term pressure drop usually refers to the pressure loss that is not recoverable in the circuit, and it is lost energy that is dissipated into the fluid stream in the form of heat energy. The pressure drop in a flow circuit is associated with various forms of energy dissipation owing to friction, change in flow area, flow turning, and others ... [Pg.490]

Pressure Drop from Are Cha.nge, Pressure drop from area change occurs as a result of energy dissipation associated with eddies formed when a flow area is suddenly expanded or contracted. It is expressed in the following form ... [Pg.490]

Several additional terms related to the absorption of x-radiation require definition energy of a x-ray photon is properly represented in joules but more conveniently reported in eV fluence is the sum of the energy in a unit area intensity or flux is the fluence per unit time and the exposure is a measure of the number of ions produced in a mass of gas. The unit of exposure in medicine is the Rn ntgen, R, defined as the quantity of radiation required to produce 2.58 x C/kg of air. The absorbed dose for a tissue is a measure of energy dissipated per unit mass. The measure of absorbed dose most... [Pg.49]

Inline motionless mixers derive the fluid motion or energy dissipation needed for mixing from the flowing fluid itself. These mixers iaclude orifice mixing columns, mixing valves, and static mixers. [Pg.435]

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