The Einstein model for the molar heat capacity of a solid at constant volume, Cy, yields the formula [Pg.85]

This model, the Einstein model for heat capacity, predicts that the heat capacity is reduced on cooling and that the heat capacity becomes zero at 0 K. At high temperatures the constant-volume heat capacity approaches the classical value 3R. The Einstein model represented a substantial improvement compared with the classical models. The experimental heat capacity of copper at constant pressure is compared in Figure 8.3 to Cy m calculated using the Einstein model with 0g = 244 K. The insert to the figure shows the Einstein frequency of Cu. All 3L vibrational modes have the same frequency, v = 32 THz. However, whereas Cy m is observed experimentally to vary proportionally with T3 at low temperatures, the Einstein heat capacity decreases more rapidly it is proportional to exp(0E IT) at low temperatures. In order to reproduce the observed low temperature behaviour qualitatively, one more essential factor must be taken into account the lattice vibrations of each individual atom are not independent of each other - collective lattice vibrations must be considered. [Pg.234]

In the Einstein model, all the independent oscillators have the same angular frequency, coe, and the average total internal energy is [Pg.233]

The Einstein theory is based on a model of dilute, unsolvated spheres. In this section we examine the consequences on intrinsic viscosity of deviations from the Einstein model in each of the following areas [Pg.168]

The simplest model to describe lattice vibrations is the Einstein model, in which all atoms vibrate as harmonic oscillators with one frequency. A more realistic model is the Debye model. Also in this case the atoms vibrate as harmonic oscillators, but now with a distribution of frequencies which is proportional to o and extends to a maximum called the Debye frequency, (Oq. It is customary to express this frequency as a temperature, the Debye temperature, defined by [Pg.298]

Under the condition that the Stokes-Einstein model holds, the translational diffusion coefficient, D, can be represented by Eq. (8.3). the diffusion time, Xd, obtained through the analysis is given by Eq. (8.4). [Pg.141]

Li, D. Voth, G. A., A path integral Einstein model for characterizing the equilibrium states of low temperature solids, J. Chem. Phys. 1992, 96, 5340-5353 [Pg.420]

Since Eq. (5) is equivalent to that of the Einstein model according to which every molecule in the crystal lattice moves freely in the volume Vf of the constant potential

If optical phonons are responsible for the Raman processes, the Einstein model for the phonon spectrum is more appropriate. In this case, one finds [Pg.212]

Jones developed an equation of the Griin-eisen type, based on the Einstein model of a solid, of the form p=Ae av— B+fRT, where a, A, B and f are constants. Lutzky, however, preferred to use an equation based on the discussion by Zel dovich Kompaneets (Ref 21) of the equation derived by Landau Stanyukovich (Ref 2). In their view, the comparatively stable molecules of the detonation products are in a highly compressed state, being at a density over twice that of the liquid gases. The predominant part of the pressure is due to elastic repulsion. [Pg.552]

Chapter 5, vapor pressure isotope effects are discussed. There, a very simple model for the condensed phase frequencies is used, the Einstein model, in which all the frequencies of a condensed phase are assumed to be the same. From this model, one can derive the same result for the relationship between vapor pressure isotope effect and zero-point energy of the oscillator as that derived by Lindemann. [Pg.20]

The Debye model is more appropriate for the acoustic branches of tire elastic modes of a hanuonic solid. For molecular solids one has in addition optical branches in the elastic wave dispersion, and the Einstein model is more appropriate to describe the contribution to U and Cj from the optical branch. The above discussion for phonons is suitable for non-metallic solids. In metals, one has, in addition, the contribution from the electronic motion to Uand Cy. This is discussed later, in section (A2.2.5.6T [Pg.414]

Figure 8.3 Experimental heat capacity of Cu at constant pressure compared with Cv m calculated by the Einstein model using 0E = 244 K. The vibrational frequency used in the Einstein model is shown in the insert. |

I2H2O as a function of the reciprocal temperature. The points are data obtained from fits of the Mdssbauer spectra (Fig. 6.6). The broken curve is a fit to the Einstein model for a Raman process. The dotted curve corresponds to a contribution from a direct process due to interactions between the electronic spins and low-energy phonons associated with critical fluctuations near the phase transition temperature. (Reprinted with permission from [32] copyright 1979 by the Institute of Physics) [Pg.214]

Here 0O is the characteristic temperature at volume V0. An average value for the volume dependence of the standard entropy at 298 K for around 60 oxides based on the Einstein model is 1.1 0.1 J K-1 cm-3 [15]. A corresponding analysis using the Debye model gives approximately the same numeric value. [Pg.251]

Whereas the latter expression must be solved numerically for low temperatures, the entropy at high temperatures can be derived by a series expansion [4], For the Debye or Einstein models the entropy is essentially given in terms of a single parameter at high temperature [Pg.249]

The collective modes of vibration of the crystal introduced in the previous paragraph involve all the atoms, and there is no longer a single vibrational frequency, as was the case in the Einstein model. Different modes of vibration have different frequencies, and in general the number of vibrational modes with frequency between v and v + dv are given by [Pg.240]

In general, the phonon density of states g(a), da is a complicated fiinction which can be directly measured from experiments, or can be computed from the results from computer simulations of a crystal. The explicit analytic expression of g(co) for the Debye model is a consequence of the two assumptions that were made above for the frequency and velocity of the elastic waves. An even simpler assumption about g(ra) leads to the Einstein model, which first showed how quantum effects lead to deviations from the classical equipartition result as seen experimentally. In the Einstein model, one assumes that only one level at frequency oig is appreciably populated by phonons so that g((o) = (oD-oig) and U = - 1), for each of the [Pg.413]

In polyisobutylene in the melt and in solution (CC14, CS2), McCall, Douglass, and Anderson 17) found that the activation energies for polymer diffusion increased with polymer concentration from the value at infinite dilution (approaching the pure solvent value) to the value in the melt. Solvent diffusion, and solvent effect on polymer diffusion, were also measured. The Stokes-Einstein model applied to this data yielded molecular dimensions too small by a factor of two or three. [Pg.10]

The experimental and simulation results presented here indicate that the system viscosity has an important effect on the overall rate of the photosensitization of diary liodonium salts by anthracene. These studies reveal that as the viscosity of the solvent is increased from 1 to 1000 cP, the overall rate of the photosensitization reaction decreases by an order of magnitude. This decrease in reaction rate is qualitatively explained using the Smoluchowski-Stokes-Einstein model for the rate constants of the bimolecular, diffusion-controlled elementary reactions in the numerical solution of the kinetic photophysical equations. A more quantitative fit between the experimental data and the simulation results was obtained by scaling the bimolecular rate constants by rj"07 rather than the rf1 as suggested by the Smoluchowski-Stokes-Einstein analysis. These simulation results provide a semi-empirical correlation which may be used to estimate the effective photosensitization rate constant for viscosities ranging from 1 to 1000 cP. [Pg.105]

Equation (45) shows that as long as balances, volumetric flasks, and viscometers are available, [17] can be determined. All that is required is to measure viscosity at a series of concentrations, work up the data as (l/c)[(ij/i70) — 1], and extrapolate to c = 0. If the experimental value of [17] turns out to be 2.5 (V2/M2), then the particles are shown to be unsolvated spheres. If [17] differs from this value, the dispersed units deviate from the requirements of the Einstein model. In the next section we examine how such deviations can be interpreted for lyophobic colloids. [Pg.167]

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